Ohio Summary

From 1980–2024 (as of June 10, 2024), there have been 98 confirmed weather/climate disaster events with losses exceeding $1 billion each to affect Ohio. These events included 9 drought events, 5 flooding events, 2 freeze events, 66 severe storm events, 4 tropical cyclone events, and 12 winter storm events. The 1980–2023 annual average is 2.1 events (CPI-adjusted); the annual average for the most recent 5 years (2019–2023) is 5.6 events (CPI-adjusted).

Billion-dollar events to affect Ohio from 1980 to 2024* (CPI-AUnadjusted)
Disaster TypeEventsEvents/​YearPercent FrequencyTotal CostsPercent of Total Costs
Drought90.29.2%$5.0B-$10.0B20.0%
Flooding50.15.1%$1.0B-$2.0B4.3%
Freeze20.02.0%$250M-$500M1.3%
Severe Storm661.567.3%$10.0B-$20.0B58.2%
Tropical Cyclone40.14.1%$2.0B-$5.0B10.5%
Wildfire----------
Winter Storm120.312.2%$1.0B-$2.0B5.6%
All Disasters982.2100.0%$20.0B-$50.0B100.0%
Drought90.210.8%$2.0B-$5.0B16.8%
Flooding50.16.0%$1.0B-$2.0B5.6%
Freeze20.02.4%$100M-$250M1.0%
Severe Storm551.266.3%$10.0B-$20.0B60.1%
Tropical Cyclone40.14.8%$2.0B-$5.0B11.5%
Wildfire----------
Winter Storm80.29.6%$500M-$1.0B4.9%
All Disasters831.8100.0%$20.0B-$50.0B100.0%
Select Time Period Comparisons of Ohio Billion-Dollar Drought, Flooding, Freeze, Severe Storm, Tropical Cyclone, Wildfire, and Winter Storm Statistics (CPI-AUnadjusted)
Time PeriodBillion-Dollar DisastersEvents/YearCostPercent of Total Cost
1980s (1980-1989)80.8$2.0B-$5.0B10.5%
1990s (1990-1999)161.6$2.0B-$5.0B9.4%
2000s (2000-2009)191.9$5.0B-$10.0B28.4%
2010s (2010-2019)262.6$5.0B-$10.0B31.1%
Last 5 Years (2019-2023)285.6$5.0B-$10.0B26.7%
Last 3 Years (2021-2023)206.7$2.0B-$5.0B14.5%
Last Year (2023)77.0$1.0B-$2.0B6.2%
All Years (1980-2024)*982.2$20.0B-$50.0B100.0%
1980s (1980-1989)20.2$500M-$1.0B3.9%
1990s (1990-1999)111.1$1.0B-$2.0B5.2%
2000s (2000-2009)161.6$2.0B-$5.0B24.5%
2010s (2010-2019)252.5$5.0B-$10.0B36.1%
Last 5 Years (2019-2023)285.6$5.0B-$10.0B37.2%
Last 3 Years (2021-2023)206.7$2.0B-$5.0B21.4%
Last Year (2023)77.0$1.0B-$2.0B9.4%
All Years (1980-2024)*831.8$20.0B-$50.0B100.0%
Billion-Dollar Events to affect Ohio
Event Type Begin
Date
End
Date
Summary CPI-AUnadjusted
Estimated
Cost
(in Billions)
Deaths
Central, Southern, Southeastern Tornado Outbreak
May 2024
Severe StormMay 6, 2024May 9, 2024An outbreak producing more than 165 tornadoes developed across many central, southern and southeastern states. The states most affected include Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. This multi-day torando outbreak produced at least 61 EF-0, 79 EF-1, 13 EF-2, three EF-3, one EF-4 tornado and dozens of EF-U (unknown/unrated) tornadoes, causing widespread damage to many homes, businesses, vehicles, agriculture and other infrastructure. The towns of Barnsdall and Bartlesville, Oklahoma were impacted by a violet EF-4 tornado that caused extensive damage.$4.7 CI3
Central Tornado Outbreak and Eastern Severe Weather
April 2024
Severe StormApril 1, 2024April 3, 2024A central tornado outbreak produced more than 85 tornadoes across a three-day period from Oklahoma to West Virginia. This outbreak included 19 EF-0, 52 EF-1 and 14 EF-2 tornadoes, which were most concentrated across the Ohio River Valley on April 1-2. These tornadoes and severe weather impacts across several eastern states caused damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and other infrastructure.$1.8 CI3
Central and Southern Severe Weather
March 2024
Severe StormMarch 12, 2024March 14, 2024Damaging hail, tornadoes and high wind from severe storms impact many Central and Southern states. Kansas, Oklahoma and Missouri were affected by up to baseball-sized hail damaging homes, vehicles, businesses. Illinois, Indiana and Ohio were impacted by hail, high wind and dozens of tornadoes including a deadly EF-3 striking northwest Ohio.$5.9 CI3
Central and Eastern Severe Weather
February 2024
Severe StormFebruary 27, 2024February 28, 2024Severe storms produced two dozen tornadoes, hail and high wind impacts across northern Illinois, central Ohio and southern Michigan. There were additional high wind impacts focused across northern Kentucky and northern Georgia causing damage to homes, vehicles, businesses and other infrastructure.$1.3 CI0
Southern Tornado Outbreak and East Coast Storm
January 2024
Severe StormJanuary 8, 2024January 10, 2024Southern tornado outbreak and east coast storm impacted more than a dozen states. At least 39 preliminary tornadoes were clustered around the Florida Panhandle through the Carolinas while hundreds of high wind reports were scattered up the East Coast reflecting damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and other infrastructure. The strongest tornado was an EF-3 that caused significant damage around Panama City Beach, Florida, after an intense waterspout moved onshore.$2.8 CI3
North Central and Eastern Severe Weather
July 2023
Severe StormJuly 28, 2023July 29, 2023Severe storms caused damage across several North Central and Eastern states. The state most impacted were Nebraska, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin. High wind, severe hail and tornadoes caused damage to many homes, vehicles, businesses and agriculture assets.$1.5 CI2
North Central and Southeastern Severe Weather
July 2023
Severe StormJuly 19, 2023July 21, 2023Severe storms caused damage across several North Central and Southeastern states. The states most impacted were Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, Tennessee and Georgia. Ping pong to golf ball-sized hail and high winds damaged many homes, vehicles, businesses and other infrastructure.$1.9 CI1
Northeastern Flooding and North Central Severe Weather
July 2023
FloodingJuly 9, 2023July 15, 2023Severe storms brought devastation and flooding to portions of the Northeast, as areas reported up to eight inches of rain within a 24-hour period. Montpelier, Vermont received a record-breaking 5.28 inches of rain, flooding the city and damaging thousands of homes and businesses. The wide scale flooding in Vermont was similar to the flood impacts from Hurricane Irene in 2011. Early estimates put the flood damage in West Point, New York at more than $100 ($103.0) million. There was also considerable damage to roads, bridges and agriculture across the Northeast. Severe storms also caused high wind and hail impacts across Wisconsin, Minnesota and Illinois.$2.2 CI10
Central and Eastern Severe Weather
April 2023
Severe StormApril 4, 2023April 6, 2023Severe storms produced large hail, high winds and more than 35 tornadoes across many central and southern states. The states most affected were Illinois, Kentucky, Iowa, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri and Michigan where there was considerable damage to homes, businesses, agriculture, vehicles and other infrastructure.$2.9 CI5
Central Tornado Outbreak and Eastern Severe Weather
March 2023
Severe StormMarch 31, 2023April 1, 2023A historic tornado outbreak across numerous central states caused widespread damage from at least 145 tornadoes. States most impacted were Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Iowa, Arkansas, Tennessee and Pennsylvania where there was severe damage to homes, businesses, vehicles, agriculture and other infrastructure.$5.9 CI33
Southern and Eastern Severe Weather
April 2023
Severe StormMarch 24, 2023March 26, 2023Southern and eastern severe storms including more than 40 tornadoes caused damage across Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee to many homes, businesses, vehicles and other infrastructure. Additional high wind damage occurred in parts of Ohio, West Virginia and Pennsylvania.$2.9 CI23
Southern and Eastern Severe Weather
March 2023
Severe StormMarch 2, 2023March 3, 2023Severe storms impact numerous southern and eastern states including Texas, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio. Impacts from high wind and tornadoes cause widespread damage to homes, vehicles, businesses, government buildings and infrastructure.$6.1 CI13
North Central and Eastern Severe Weather
July 2022
Severe StormJuly 22, 2022July 24, 2022Severe weather with high winds and 19 tornadoes impact numerous states including North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland and New York. Many homes, businesses, vehicles, agriculture and other infrastructure were damaged.$1.4 CI1
Central Derecho
June 2022
Severe StormJune 13, 2022June 13, 2022A powerful derecho carved a path a high wind damage across several states with the impacts focused in Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. Thousands of trees were downed from the high winds causing damage to many homes, businesses, vehicles, power lines and other infrastructure. There was also considerable hail damage across southern Wisconsin.$3.4 CI1
Central Severe Weather
June 2022
Severe StormJune 7, 2022June 8, 2022Severe weather produced damaging hail, high wind and damage from more than two dozen tornadoes across numerous states including Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Texas, Iowa and Ohio. Hail and high wind damage was severe across much of Nebraska causing widespread damage to homes, businesses, vehicles, farms and agriculture and other infrastructure.$2.0 CI0
North Central Hail Storms
May 2022
Severe StormMay 19, 2022May 19, 2022Severe hail storms with numerous reports of golf-balled sized hail causing damage across southeastern Minnesota and western Wisconsin. These hail storms were south of the hail storms that damaged many homes, vehicles and businesses just 10 days earlier on May 9.$2.6 CI0
Southern and Central Severe Weather
May 2022
Severe StormMay 1, 2022May 3, 2022Severe weather producing high winds and large, damaging hail impacted several Southern and Central states including Texas, Oklahoma, Ohio and Pennsylvania. Many homes, businesses, vehicles and agriculture assets were damaged.$1.2 CI1
Southern Severe Weather
April 2022
Severe StormApril 11, 2022April 13, 2022Severe weather including hundreds of damaging wind reports and dozens of tornadoes occurred across Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, Tennessee and Kentucky. On April 11, tornadoes and damaging hail was focused across central Arkansas causing damage to homes, vehicles, outbuildings and farms and vegetation. April 12 and 13 produced widespread high wind reports and dozens of tornadoes across central Mississippi, northeast Arkansas and west-central Kentucky. These tornadoes produced damage to homes, businesses, farms, outbuildings and other infrastructure. There was also considerable hail damage across Wisconsin and Minnesota.$2.9 CI1
Southern Tornado Outbreak
March 2022
Severe StormMarch 30, 2022March 30, 2022An outbreak of 83 tornadoes was focused across the Gulf Coast states including Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida.$1.4 CI2
Southeast, Central Tornado Outbreak
December 2021
Severe StormDecember 10, 2021December 10, 2021Historic December tornado outbreak across several southeast and central states caused devastating damage across many towns and cities. This outbreak produced two long-tracked EF-4 tornadoes across Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky. The longest tornado track was nearly 166 miles across Kentucky and a small portion of Tennessee. This was the longest-tracked tornado on record in Kentucky and was a U.S. record tornado track length for the month of December. There were over 800 total miles of tornado path length on December 10. The peak intensity from this outbreak was EF-4 rated wind speeds of 190 mph in Mayfield, Kentucky. This day was also the deadliest December tornado outbreak recorded in the United States surpassing the Vicksburg, Mississippi tornado of December 5, 1953, which caused 38 fatalities.$4.4 CI93
North Central Severe Weather
August 2021
Severe StormAugust 10, 2021August 13, 2021Widespread high wind impacts across numerous North Central states including Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Missouri. This multi-day event caused damage to infrastructure, homes, vehicles and businesses.$1.5 CI2
Central Severe Storms
June 2021
Severe StormJune 24, 2021June 26, 2021A combination of thunderstorm high winds, hail and tornadoes affected numerous Central states. The states most affected included Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Kansas and Texas with damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and agriculture.$1.4 CI0
Ohio Valley Hail Storms
June 2021
Severe StormJune 17, 2021June 18, 2021Damaging hail storm and high wind impacts across several states including Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri. The hail impacts were most severe in southeastern Minnesota, southern Iowa, southeastern Indiana and southwestern Ohio, with damage to many homes, vehicles and businesses.$2.0 CI0
Southeast Tornadoes and Severe Weather
March 2021
Severe StormMarch 24, 2021March 25, 2021At least 41 tornadoes impact several states including Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. These included one EF-4, four EF-3s, ten EF-2s and approximately two-dozen EF-1 or EF-0 tornadoes. The strongest of these tornadoes were focused across central Alabama and western Georgia with tracks across the entire width of Alabama. There was widespread damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and infrastructure.$2.0 CI6
Central Severe Weather - Derecho
August 2020
Severe StormAugust 10, 2020August 10, 2020A powerful derecho traveled from southeast South Dakota to Ohio, a path of 770 miles in 14 hours producing widespread winds greater than 100 mph. The states most affected included Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Indiana and Ohio. This derecho caused widespread damage to millions of acres of corn and soybean crops across central Iowa. There was also severe damage to homes, businesses and vehicles particularly in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. In addition, there were 15 tornadoes across northeastern Illinois several affecting the Chicago metropolitan area. This is the third severe weather event (since 1980) with inflation-adjusted costs over $10.0 ($12.1) billion joining the late-April and May 2011 tornado outbreaks across the Southeastern and Central states, respectively.$13.3 CI4
North Central and Ohio Valley Hail Storms and Severe Weather
April 2020
Severe StormApril 7, 2020April 8, 2020Numerous hail storms caused widespread damage across many North Central and Ohio Valley states including Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin and Missouri. More than 20 tornadoes were also reorted across southern Indiana and Ohio. There was additional widespread high wind damage to homes, vehicles and businesses in many other surrounding states.$3.5 CI0
Midwest and Ohio Valley Severe Weather
March 2020
Severe StormMarch 27, 2020March 28, 2020Severe weather caused damage across many Midwest and Ohio Valley states including Missouri, Oklahoma, Texas, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia and Pennsylvania. The states most affected from a combination of high winds and hail were Missouri, Ohio and Arkansas. There were also two dozen tornadoes across Iowa, Illinois, Indiana and Arkansas causing additional damage.$3.1 CI0
Southeast Tornadoes and Northern Storms and Flooding
January 2020
Severe StormJanuary 10, 2020January 12, 2020More than 80 tornadoes and severe storms caused damage across many southeastern states (AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MS, MO, NC, OH, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI). Storms and severe flooding also impacted northern states including Michigan, Wisconsin and New York. Significant damage occurred along the shoreline of Lake Michigan to roads, the foundation of homes and to Port Milwaukee. These powerful waves were generated by high winds and a lack of seasonal ice cover.$1.4 CI10
Mississippi River, Midwest and Southern Flooding
July 2019
FloodingMarch 15, 2019July 31, 2019Additional major flooding impacted many Southern Plains states significantly affecting agriculture, roads, bridges, levees, dams and other assets across many cities and towns. The states most affected were Oklahoma, Nebraska, Missouri, Illinois, Kansas, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Texas, Mississippi and Louisiana. Very high water levels also disrupted barge traffic along the Mississippi River, which negatively impacted a variety of dependent industries. Indiana and Ohio were also affected by persistent heavy rainfall that flooded farmland, which prevented and reduced crop planting by millions of acres.$7.6 CI4
Rockies, Central and Northeast Tornadoes and Severe Weather
May 2019
Severe StormMay 26, 2019May 29, 2019A four-day tornado outbreak impacts many states across the Rockies, Central and Northeast (CO, WY, NE, KS, OK, MO, IA, IL, IN, OH, PA and NJ). This outbreak produced 190 tornadoes in addition to hundreds of reports of damaging hail and straight-line thunderstorm winds. Of particular note was an EF-4 tornado that produced heavy damage near the city of Dayton, Ohio on May 27.$5.6 CI3
Southern and Eastern Tornadoes and Severe Weather
April 2019
Severe StormApril 13, 2019April 14, 2019Tornado outbreak and severe storms impacted many states (TX, LA, MS, AL, GA, NC, OH and PA). More than 50 tornadoes occurred across central Mississippi and Alabama causing damage to vehicles, homes and businesses. More than 25 additional tornadoes also caused damage across several eastern states from Georgia to Pennsylvania. These severe storms also delivered damaging hail and high wind damage that was widespread across many Southern and and Eastern states.$1.5 CI7
Southeast, Ohio Valley and Northeast Severe Weather
February 2019
Severe StormFebruary 23, 2019February 25, 2019Tornadoes, severe weather and flooding in the south (MS, AL, TN) and high-wind damage across many Ohio Valley (IL, IN, OH) and Northeastern states (CT, MD, MA, NJ, NY, PA, VA, WV). This storm system produced heavy rain that caused major flooding along parts of the Ohio, Mississippi and Tennessee rivers.$1.5 CI2
Central and Eastern Severe Weather
May 2018
Severe StormMay 13, 2018May 15, 2018Severe storm damage across many Central states including TX, KS, CO, OK, MO, IL, IN, IA and OH. This was followed by a derecho event across the Northeastern states of MD, NJ, NY, PA, VA, WV, MA and CT that caused widespread high wind damage. Also, there were one dozen tornadoes reported across PA, NY and CT causing further damage.$1.7 CI5
Central and Northeast Severe Weather
May 2018
Severe StormMay 1, 2018May 4, 2018Numerous central states (KS, NE, OK, TX, NM, MO, IA, IL, IN, OH, WI) were impacted by large hail and tornadoes. Several northeastern states including NY, PA and VT were also impacted by high wind damage from severe storms.$1.7 CI0
Missouri and Arkansas Flooding and Central Severe Weather
May 2017
FloodingApril 25, 2017May 7, 2017A period of heavy rainfall up to 15 inches over a multi-state region in the Midwest caused historic levels of flooding along many rivers. The flooding was most severe in Missouri, Arkansas and southern Illinois where levees were breached and towns were flooded. There was widespread damage to homes, businesses, infrastructure and agriculture. Severe storms also caused additional impacts during the flooding event across a number of central and southern states.$2.1 CI20
Midwest Tornado Outbreak
March 2017
Severe StormMarch 6, 2017March 8, 2017Tornado outbreak and wind damage across many Midwestern states (AR, IA, IL, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, NY, OH, WI). Missouri and Illinois were impacted by numerous tornadoes while Michigan and New York were affected by destructive, straight-line winds following the storm system. Nearly one million customers lost power in Michigan alone due to sustained high winds, which affected several states from Illinois to New York.$2.8 CI2
Central/Southeast Tornado Outbreak
March 2017
Severe StormFebruary 28, 2017March 1, 2017Over 70 tornadoes developed during a widespread outbreak across many central and southern states causing significant damage. There was also widespread straight-line wind and hail damage. This was the second largest tornado outbreak to occur early in 2017.$2.3 CI6
West Virginia Flooding and Ohio Valley Tornadoes
June 2016
FloodingJune 22, 2016June 24, 2016Torrential rainfall caused destructive flooding through many West Virginia towns, damaging thousands of homes and businesses and causing considerable loss of life. Over 1,500 roads and bridges were damaged or destroyed making the impact on infrastructure comparable to the historic 2013 Colorado flood. The storm system also produced numerous tornadoes causing damage across several Ohio Valley states.$1.3 CI23
Texas and Oklahoma Flooding and Severe Weather
May 2015
FloodingMay 23, 2015May 26, 2015A slow-moving system caused tremendous rainfall and subsequent flooding to occur in Texas and Oklahoma. The Blanco river in Texas swelled from 5 feet to a crest of more than 40 feet over several hours causing considerable property damage and loss of life. The city of Houston also experienced flooding which resulted in hundreds of high-water rescues. The damage in Texas alone exceeded $1.0 ($1.3) billion. There was also damage in other states (KS, CO, AR, OH, LA, GA, SC) from associated severe storms.$3.4 CI31
Midwest/Ohio Valley Severe Weather
April 2015
Severe StormApril 7, 2015April 9, 2015Severe storms across the Midwest and Ohio Valley including the states (AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MO, NC, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX, WI, WV). Large hail and high winds created the most damage across Missouri and Illinois.$2.1 CI2
Central and Eastern Winter storm, Cold Wave
February 2015
Winter StormFebruary 14, 2015February 20, 2015A large winter storm and associated cold wave impacted many central, eastern and northeastern states (CT, DE, GA, IL, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA). The city of Boston was particularly impacted as feet of snow continued to accumulate causing load-stress on buildings and clogging transportation corridors. Total, direct losses in Massachusetts alone exceed $1.0 ($1.3) billion for this event, with considerable damage in many other states.$4.0 CI30
Rockies/Midwest/Eastern Severe Weather
May 2014
Severe StormMay 18, 2014May 23, 2014Severe storms across the Rockies, Midwest and Eastern states (CO, MT, IA, IL, IN, OH, SC, VA, PA, DE, NY) with the most costly damage in Colorado, Illinois and Pennsylvania.$4.9 CI0
Center Severe Weather
May 2014
Severe StormMay 10, 2014May 14, 2014Severe weather including damaging hail, high winds and more than 50 tornadoes impacted Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and West Virginia. These impacts caused damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and other infrastructure.$1.1* CI0
Midwest/Southeast/Northeast Winter Storm
January 2014
Winter StormJanuary 5, 2014January 8, 2014Winter storm caused widespread damage across numerous Midwest, Southeast and Northeastern states (AL, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA).$2.9 CI16
Ohio Valley Tornadoes
November 2013
Severe StormNovember 17, 2013November 17, 2013Late-season outbreak of tornadoes and severe weather over the Ohio Valley (IL, IN, KY, MI, MO, OH) with 70 confirmed tornadoes. Most severe impacts occurred across Illinois and Indiana.$1.5 CI8
U.S. Drought/Heat Wave
2012
DroughtJanuary 1, 2012December 31, 2012The 2012 drought is the most extensive drought to affect the U.S. since the 1930s. Moderate to extreme drought conditions affected more than half the country for a majority of 2012. The following states were affected: CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM, TX, ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, AR, MO, IA, MN, IL, IN, GA. Costly drought impacts occurred across the central agriculture states resulting in widespread harvest failure for corn, sorghum and soybean crops, among others. The associated summer heat wave also caused 123 direct deaths, but an estimate of the excess mortality due to heat stress is still unknown.$41.4 CI123
Hurricane Sandy
October 2012
Tropical CycloneOctober 30, 2012October 31, 2012Extensive damage across several northeastern states (MD, DE, NJ, NY, CT, MA, RI) due to high wind and coastal storm surge, particularly NY and NJ. Damage from wind, rain and heavy snow also extended more broadly to other states (NC, VA, WV, OH, PA, NH), as Sandy merged with a developing Nor'easter. Sandy's impact on major population centers caused widespread interruption to critical water/electrical services and also caused 159 deaths (72 direct, 87 indirect). Sandy also caused the New York Stock Exchange to close for two consecutive business days, which last happened in 1888 due to a major winter storm.$88.5 CI159
Plains/East/Northeast Derecho
June-July 2012
Severe StormJune 29, 2012July 2, 2012Sustained outbreak of thunderstorms/high winds from a strong derecho event over the central, eastern, and northeastern states (IL, IN, KY, OH, WV, SC, NC, VA, MD, DC, NJ).$4.0 CI28
Southeast/Ohio Valley Tornadoes
March 2012
Severe StormMarch 2, 2012March 3, 2012Outbreak of tornadoes and severe weather over the southeast and Ohio Valley (AL, GA, IN, OH, KY, TN) with 75 confirmed tornadoes.$4.3 CI42
Rockies and Midwest Derecho
July 10-11, 2011
Severe StormJuly 10, 2011July 11, 2011A derecho produced a wide swatch of high wind damage beginning east of the Rockies and across the central plains (CO, IA, IL, MI, MN, OH).$1.7 CI2
Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes
May 2011
Severe StormMay 22, 2011May 27, 2011Outbreak of tornadoes over central and southern states (MO, TX, OK, KS, AR, GA, TN, VA, KY, IN, IL, OH, WI, MN, PA) with an estimated 180 tornadoes. Notably, an EF-5 tornado struck Joplin, MO resulting in at least 160 deaths, making it the deadliest single tornado to strike the U.S. since modern tornado record keeping began in 1950.$12.6 CI177
Southeast/Ohio Valley/Midwest Tornadoes
April 2011
Severe StormApril 25, 2011April 28, 2011Outbreak of tornadoes over central and southern states (AL, AR, LA, MS, GA, TN, VA, KY, IL, MO, OH, TX, OK) with an estimated 343 tornadoes. The deadliest tornado of the outbreak, an EF-5, hit northern Alabama, killing 78 people. Several major metropolitan areas were directly impacted by strong tornadoes including Tuscaloosa, Birmingham, and Huntsville in Alabama and Chattanooga, Tennessee, causing the estimated damage costs to soar.$14.2 CI321
Ohio Valley Derecho and Southern Tornadoes
April 2011
Severe StormApril 19, 2011April 20, 2011Dozens of tornadoes and a derecho affect numerous states (AR, IL, IN, KY, MO, OH, TN, TX) across the Ohio Valley and South.$1.4 CI0
Groundhog Day Blizzard
February 2011
Winter StormFebruary 1, 2011February 3, 2011A large winter storm impacted many central, eastern and northeastern states. The city of Chicago was brought to a virtual standstill as between 1 and 2 feet of snow fell over the area.$2.5 CI36
Southeast/Ohio Valley Severe Weather
February 2009
Severe StormFebruary 10, 2009February 11, 2009Complex of severe thunderstorms and high winds across the region (TN, KY, OK, OH, VA, WV, PA).$2.6 CI10
Hurricane Ike
September 2008
Tropical CycloneSeptember 12, 2008September 14, 2008Category 2 hurricane makes landfall in Texas, as the largest (in size) Atlantic hurricane on record, causing considerable storm surge in coastal TX and significant wind and flooding damage in TX, LA, AR, TN, IL, IN, KY, MO, OH, MI and PA. Severe gasoline shortages occurred in the southeast U.S. due to damaged oil platforms, storage tanks, pipelines and off-line refineries.$42.9 CI112
Southeast Tornadoes and Severe Weather
February 2008
Severe StormFebruary 5, 2008February 6, 2008Series of tornadoes and severe thunderstorms across the Southeast and Midwest states (AL, AR, IN, KY, MS, OH, TN, TX) with 87 tornadoes confirmed.$1.8 CI57
Western/Eastern Drought/Heat Wave
Summer-Fall 2007
DroughtJune 1, 2007November 30, 2007Severe drought with periods of extreme heat over most of the southeast and portions of the Great Plains, Ohio Valley, and Great Lakes area, resulting in major reductions in crop yields, along with very low stream-flows and lake levels. Includes states of ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, TX, MN, WI, IA, MO, AR, LA, MS, AL, GA, NC, SC, FL, TN, VA, WV, KY, IN, IL, OH, MI, PA, NY.$5.5 CI15
Spring Freeze
April 2007
FreezeApril 4, 2007April 10, 2007Widespread severe freeze over much of the east and midwest (AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MO, MS, NC, NE, OH, OK, SC, TN, VA, WV), causing significant losses in fruit crops, field crops (especially wheat), and the ornamental industry. Temperatures in the teens/20s accompanied by rather high winds nullified typical crop-protection systems.$3.2 CI0
Central Severe Weather
October 2006
Severe StormOctober 2, 2006October 5, 2006Severe storms cause high wind and hail damage across numerous states including OH, IL, IN, MI, MN and WI.$1.4* CI1
Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes
April 6-8, 2006
Severe StormApril 6, 2006April 8, 2006Severe weather and numerous tornadoes affecting the states of OK, KS, MO, NE, KY, OH, TN, IN, MS, GA, and AL on April 6-8 with 3 "killer" tornadoes in TN.$2.5 CI10
Hurricane Ivan
September 2004
Tropical CycloneSeptember 12, 2004September 21, 2004Category 3 hurricane makes landfall on Gulf coast of Alabama, with significant wind, storm surge, and flooding damage in coastal AL and FL panhandle, along with wind/flood damage in the states of GA, MS, LA, SC, NC, VA, WV, MD, TN, KY, OH, DE, NJ, PA, and NY.$33.8 CI57
Severe Storms, Hail, Tornadoes
May 2004
Severe StormMay 21, 2004May 27, 2004Severe storms including tornadoes and hail cause damage across the Midwest, South, Southeast and Northeast regions. The states impacted include IA, IL, IN, KY, MI, MO, NC, NE, NY, OK, OH and WI.$1.7 CI4
Southern Derecho and Eastern Severe Weather
July 2003
Severe StormJuly 21, 2003July 23, 2003Derecho across several southern states with the most focused damage across the Memphis, Tennessee metro area. Severe storms impact states across the South, Southeast, Midwest and Northeast regions including AR, AL, MS, GA, FL, SC, TN, KY, MI, NY, OH, PA and VT.$1.7 CI7
Midwest/Plains Severe Weather
July 2003
Severe StormJuly 4, 2003July 9, 2003Severe storms affect the states IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, VA, WV across the Midwest and Plains.$1.5* CI7
Severe Storms/Tornadoes
May 2003
Severe StormMay 3, 2003May 10, 2003Numerous tornadoes over the midwest, Mississippi valley, OH/TN valleys, and portions of the southeast, with a modern record one-week total of approximately 400 tornadoes reported$7.1 CI51
U.S. Drought
Spring-Fall 2002
DroughtMarch 1, 2002November 30, 2002Moderate to extreme drought over large portions of more than 30 states, including the western states, the Great Plains, and much of the eastern U.S.$15.9 CI0
Eastern Tornadoes and Severe Storms
November 2002
Severe StormNovember 9, 2002November 11, 2002Tornado outbreak of over 100 tornadoes across many eastern states causes widespread damage (AL, MS, GA, TN, KY, OH, PA). Tennessee and Ohio had the highest count of tornadoes.$1.2* CI28
Severe Storms and Tornadoes
April 2002
Severe StormApril 27, 2002April 28, 2002Numerous tornadoes and widespread hail damage over the Central and Eastern states including NC, GA, VA, TX, AR, MO, MS, TN, IL, IN, KY, PA, MD, NY, OH, WV, and KS.$3.6 CI7
Midwest/Ohio Valley Hail and Tornadoes
April 2001
Severe StormApril 6, 2001April 11, 2001Storms, tornadoes, and hail in the states of TX, OK, KS, NE, IA, MO, IL, IN, WI, MI, OH, KY, WV, and PA, over a 6-day period.$5.5 CI3
Eastern Drought/Heat Wave
Summer 1999
DroughtJune 1, 1999August 31, 1999Very dry summer and high temperatures, mainly in eastern U.S., with extensive agricultural losses. The states impacted include AL, AR, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, OH, SC, TN, VA, WV and PA.$4.8 CI502
Oklahoma and Kansas Tornadoes
May 1999
Severe StormMay 3, 1999May 6, 1999Outbreak of F4-F5 tornadoes hit the states of Oklahoma and Kansas, along with Texas and Tennessee, Oklahoma City area hardest hit.$3.8 CI55
Central and Eastern Winter Storm
Mid-January 1999
Winter StormJanuary 13, 1999January 16, 1999Winter storm affecting the Central and Eastern states including IL, IN, OH, MI, WV, VA, MD, PA, NJ, NY, MA, CT, VT, NH and ME.$1.7* CI0
Central and Eastern Winter Storm
January 1999
Winter StormJanuary 1, 1999January 4, 1999South, Southeast, Midwest, Northeast affected by damaging winter storm$2.0 CI25
Central and Eastern Severe Storms and Flooding
June 1998
Severe StormJune 20, 1998June 24, 1998Severe storms and flooding impact numerous Central and Eastern states. In particular, these storms and floods affected many residences and businesses throughout north-central and eastern Ohio. More than 7,000 homes were affected and more than 1,000 structures were completely destroyed or declared uninhabitable.$1.7* CI12
Northern Plains and Great Lakes Derecho, Tornadoes
June 1998
Severe StormMay 30, 1998June 2, 1998Severe storms in late May through early June hit the Midwest, North, Northeast, and Southeast$2.2 CI20
Mississippi and Ohio Valley Severe Weather and Flooding
March 1997
Severe StormFebruary 28, 1997March 5, 1997Tornadoes and severe flooding hit the states of AR, MO, MS, TN, IL, IN, KY, OH, and WV, with over 10 inches of rain in 24 hours in Louisville.$1.9 CI67
Hurricane Fran
September 1996
Tropical CycloneSeptember 5, 1996September 8, 1996Category 3 hurricane strikes North Carolina and Virginia, over 10-inch 24-hour rains in some locations and extensive agricultural and other losses.$10.0 CI37
Blizzard/Floods
January 1996
Winter StormJanuary 1, 1996January 31, 1996Very heavy snowstorm (1-4 feet) over Appalachians, Mid-Atlantic, and Northeast; followed by severe flooding in parts of same area due to rain and snowmelt.$6.1 CI187
Central, Southern and Northeast Drought/Heat Wave
September 1995
DroughtJuly 1, 1995September 30, 1995Historic mid-July heat wave and urban heat island amplification caused hundreds of deaths across several major cities including Chicago, Milwaukee, and Philadelphia. Following the heat wave was hot, dry weather in July and August 1995 that affected crops in numerous states, as crops had not rooted well due to late planting from previous wet soils. This left crops vulnerable to a flash drought during a key portion of the growing season.$2.0 CI872
Winter Storm, Cold Wave
January 1994
Winter StormJanuary 17, 1994January 20, 1994Winter storm affects the Southeast and Northeast regions. The states impacted include CT, DE, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT and WV.$2.2 CI70
Northern Plains and Ohio Valley Severe Weather
July 1993
Severe StormJuly 8, 1993July 10, 1993Severe storms caused high wind, hail and tornado damage across many Northern/Central Plains (NE, KS, MO, IA, MN, ND) and Ohio Valley states (IL, IN).$1.4* CI1
East Coast Blizzard and Severe Weather
March 1993
Winter StormMarch 11, 1993March 14, 1993The "Storm of the Century" impacts the entire Eastern seaboard from Florida to Maine. This historic storm dumped 2-4 feet of snow and caused hurricane force winds across many Eastern and Northeastern states. This caused power outages to over 10 million households. Additional impacts included numerous tornadoes across Florida causing substantial damage. This was the most destructive and costly winter storm to affect the United States (since 1980), until it was surpassed by the February 2021 winter storm and cold wave.$12.1 CI270
Southeast Severe Weather
November 1992
Severe StormNovember 21, 1992November 23, 1992Three-day tornado outbreak strikes many Central and Eastern states including TX, LA, AL, MS, GA, AR, IN, OH, KY, TN, and NC. Major damage was reported across many areas, as more than 100 tornadoes were reported. This event remains one of the most prolific Fall season tornado outbreaks on record.$1.5* CI26
Severe Storms, Tornadoes
March 1991
Severe StormMarch 26, 1991March 29, 1991Severe storms hit the Midwest, Southeast, Northeast. The states impacted include KS, IL, MI, IN, MS, TN, KY, OH, AL, PA, NY, GA, SC and NC.$1.5* CI0
Winter Storm, Cold Wave
December 1989
Winter StormDecember 21, 1989December 26, 1989Winter storm and deep cold impacts the Northeast, South and Southeast. The states impacted include AL, AR, CT, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, ME, MO, MS, NC, NH, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT and WV.$1.7* CI100
U.S. Drought/Heat Wave
Summer 1988
DroughtJune 1, 1988August 31, 19881988 drought across a large portion of the U.S. with very severe losses to agriculture and related industries. Combined direct and indirect deaths (i.e., excess mortality) due to heat stress estimated at 5,000.$54.2 CI454
Ohio and Pennsylvania Tornado Outbreak
June 1985
Severe StormMay 31, 1985May 31, 1985Historic tornado outbreak caused widespread damage across eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania into New York and Canada. Dozens of tornadoes caused widespread destruction to many homes, businesses, farms and infrastructure. 89 people also lost their lives, which made this tornado outbreak the most deadly across the U.S. during the 1980s. There were also more than 1,000 reports of injury.$1.7* CI89
Winter Storm, Cold Wave
January 1985
Winter StormJanuary 19, 1985January 22, 1985Extreme cold and winter storms in the Southeast, South, Southwest, Northeast, Midwest, and North$2.5* CI150
Severe Storms
June 1982
Severe StormMay 31, 1982June 10, 1982Severe storms cause damage across the South, Southeast and Central regions. The states impacted include AR, IL, KY, IN, SC, GA and OH.$1.6* CI30
Midwest/Plains/Southeast Tornadoes
April 1982
Severe StormApril 2, 1982April 4, 1982Tornadoes and severe weather affect the states (AL, AR, CO, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, NE, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX, WI, WV) across the Midwest, Plains and Southeast.$1.6* CI33
Midwest/Southeast/Northeast Winter Storm, Cold Wave
January 1982
Winter StormJanuary 8, 1982January 16, 1982Winter storm and cold wave affect numerous states (AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV) across the Midwest, Southeast and Northeast.$2.2* CI85

Deaths associated with drought are the result of heat waves. (Not all droughts are accompanied by extreme heat waves.)

Flooding events (river basin or urban flooding from excessive rainfall) are separate from inland flood damage caused by tropical cyclone events.

*Statistics valid as of June 10, 2024

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