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Deep ocean current profiles, water temperatures, and echo amplitudes from bottom-moored ADCP during 2011-2013 of the Aloha Cabled Observatory (NCEI Accession 0123608)


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            title:  Deep ocean current profiles, water temperatures, and echo amplitudes from bottom-moored ADCP during 2011-2013 of the Aloha Cabled Observatory (NCEI Accession 0123608)
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                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/4681 Daniel McCoy
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                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/231 University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM)
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                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/231 University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM)
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        abstract:  The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is a system of hardware and software that extends electric power and the Internet offshore, supporting sustained real-time observations in the deep ocean. The ACO is connected to Oahu, Hawaii by the HAW-4 telecommunications cable transferred to the project by AT&T in 2007. On June 6th, 2011, the ACO was deployed on the ocean bottom (depth ~ 5 kilometers - 3 miles) near Station ALOHA, 100 kilometers (60 nautical miles) north of Oahu, Hawaii. Station ALOHA is the site of the long-term Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) open ocean measurement program, visited by research vessels 10-12 times each year since October 1988. There are five modules that are connected together on the seafloor. The Junction Box is connected to the HAW-4 cable and to the Observatory module. Together, they supply 1200 watts of power and 100 Megabits per second of Ethernet communications to sensor systems on these two modules, and to the other three modules. The other modules are the Camera tripod, the AMM bottom node, and the TAAM mooring. Sensors provide live video of the ocean bottom around the ACO, sound from local and distant sources, currents, pressure, temperature, and salinity. This data set contains the 2011-06 to 2013-12 rapidly sampled current velocity data, which are collected at the ACO using a SonTek 250 kHz Acoustic Doppler Profiler. The instrument is located at a depth of 4726.2 m below the mean surface, 1.83 m above the bottom. There are 20 depth bins in each profile, which reaches upward to at most 100 m above the bottom. The data have been quality controlled and are stored in NetCDF format. The files contain current velocity in the east, north, and upward directions in m/s. Ancillary fields include mean echo amplitude and temperature. The project is ongoing with data from 2014- to become available.
        purpose:  It is difficult to make sustained measurements in the deep ocean. Systems lowered on cables from research ships can use power from the ship, but ships (and people) cannot remain on station without reprovisioning. Systems that are moored in the ocean can make measurements for a longer period of time, but they are limited by the battery power that can be contained in pressure-resistant cases. Moored measurements are typically not available until the mooring is recovered a year or more after deployment. With a surface buoy and special subsurface cabling, moorings can transmit limited amounts of data by satellite to shore with relatively little delay. The ACO provides continuous power and fast two-way communications between shore and a variety of oceanographic instruments, allowing scientific research to be done continually. These capabilities allow scientists to modify sampling as we learn more about the ocean environment surrounding the ACO.
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            otherConstraints:  Cite as: McCoy, Daniel; UH Mānoa (2015). Deep ocean current profiles, water temperatures, and echo amplitudes from bottom-moored ADCP during 2011-2013 of the Aloha Cabled Observatory (NCEI Accession 0123608). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0123608. Accessed [date].
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                    beginPosition:  2011-06-22
                    endPosition:  2013-12-31
        supplementalInformation:  Other Aloha Cabled Observatory data at NODC ACCESSION: 0123115 TITLE: Deep ocean CTD data 2011-2013 from the Aloha Cabled Observatory
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                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
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                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free. However, fees may apply for custom orders, data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
                orderingInstructions:  Contact NCEI for other distribution options and instructions.
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                    description:  These data are available through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). FTP is no longer supported by most internet browsers. You may copy and paste the FTP link to the data into an FTP client (e.g., FileZilla or WinSCP).
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0123608 v1.1 was published.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-01-26T23:01:42Z
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                        title:  NCEI Accession 0123608 v1.1
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                                    description:  published 2015-01-26T23:01:42Z
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                other:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
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                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
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                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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                code:  ADCP
            type:  ADCP
            description:  Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measures currents beneath a ship while underway. Sound signals sent from the moving ship bounce back to receivers aboard the ship. This provides a profile of water movement relative to the ship-precise modern navigation, allowing the ship's motion to be subtracted from the data. These devices are also used on moorings and profilers and, along with acoustic backscattering, measure animal biomass. Particles in the path of the sound waves, mostly plankton, reflect a small part of the sound energy back toward receivers, allowing researchers to make remote estimates of the sizes and numbers of animals present in the water column. Before the 1970's, the most technologically advanced instrument used to measure water velocity was known as a Doppler speed log. This evolved into the first commercial ADCP, produced in the mid-1970's, which used averaging. Later in the 1970's, the first vessel-mounted ADCP was developed to measure water velocity more accurately and to allow measurement in range cells over a depth profile. As instruments evolved, so did new techniques in Doppler signal processing. Initially, Doppler speed logs used simple analog signal processing methods, which are still used in some commercial speed logs today. However, the first ADCPs incorporated analog-to-digital signal conversion over a narrow communication bandwidth. Around 1990, this technique was developed into broadband signal processing. Since then, broadband ADCPs have been able to generate very accurate, real-time velocity measurements.