Physical, chemical, geological, and biological data collected by U.S. Geological Survey from moorings in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea from 1975-05-08 to 2015-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0156446)


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            title:  Physical, chemical, geological, and biological data collected by U.S. Geological Survey from moorings in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea from 1975-05-08 to 2015-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0156446)
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                date:  2016-09-08
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        abstract:  Time series datasets collected by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program from 1975 to the present. The data were collected to address specific research questions and were primarily collected over durations less than a year, using stationary platforms, with sensors near the sea floor. Some of the measurements span the vertical extent of the water column, but others are limited to the area less than 5 meters above the sea floor. These data have been used to study of ocean dynamics and to validate coastal ocean models.
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            otherConstraints:  Cite as: Signell, Richard P.; US DOI/US Geological Survey > Woods Hole Science Center (2016). Physical, chemical, geological, and biological data collected by U.S. Geological Survey from moorings in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea from 1975-05-08 to 2015-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0156446). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0156446. Accessed [date].
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                    beginPosition:  1975-05-08
                    endPosition:  2015-07-14
        supplementalInformation:  Some of these data sets have been previously submitted in the following accessions: 0049879, 0052766, 0053940, 0053941, 0058714, 0066005, 0066007, 0066008, 0066097, 0066098, 0066099, 0067553, 0067554, 0067555, 0067557, 0067570, 0067572 0067573, 0067576, 0067577, 0067568, 0042026, 0049880, 0053671, 0054154, 0056730, 0060062, 0061443, 0061458, 0066009, 0066107, 0066109, 0066110, 0066111, 0067556, 0067558,0067569, 0067571, 0067574, 0067575, and 0054153.
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                        city:  Asheville
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0156446 v1.1 was published.
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                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                            individualName: (inapplicable)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0156446/1.1
                                    protocol:  HTTPS
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0156446 v1.1
                                    description:  published 2016-09-08T15:16:51Z
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
                            role: (inapplicable)
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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    acquisitionInformation:  (MI_AcquisitionInformation)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  ADCP
            type:  ADCP
            description:  Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measures currents beneath a ship while underway. Sound signals sent from the moving ship bounce back to receivers aboard the ship. This provides a profile of water movement relative to the ship-precise modern navigation, allowing the ship's motion to be subtracted from the data. These devices are also used on moorings and profilers and, along with acoustic backscattering, measure animal biomass. Particles in the path of the sound waves, mostly plankton, reflect a small part of the sound energy back toward receivers, allowing researchers to make remote estimates of the sizes and numbers of animals present in the water column. Before the 1970's, the most technologically advanced instrument used to measure water velocity was known as a Doppler speed log. This evolved into the first commercial ADCP, produced in the mid-1970's, which used averaging. Later in the 1970's, the first vessel-mounted ADCP was developed to measure water velocity more accurately and to allow measurement in range cells over a depth profile. As instruments evolved, so did new techniques in Doppler signal processing. Initially, Doppler speed logs used simple analog signal processing methods, which are still used in some commercial speed logs today. However, the first ADCPs incorporated analog-to-digital signal conversion over a narrow communication bandwidth. Around 1990, this technique was developed into broadband signal processing. Since then, broadband ADCPs have been able to generate very accurate, real-time velocity measurements.
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  CTD
            type:  CTD
            description:  Conductivity-Temperature-Depth probe
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  CTD - moored CTD
            type:  CTD - moored CTD
            description:  CTD - moored CTD
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  current meter
            type:  current meter
            description:  current meter
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  meteorological sensors
            type:  meteorological sensors
            description:  meteorological sensors
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  MOORINGS
            description:  MOORINGS
            instrument: (missing)