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Coral reef resilience and social vulnerability to climate change in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands (NCEI Accession 0211010)


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            title:  Coral reef resilience and social vulnerability to climate change in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands (NCEI Accession 0211010)
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                date:  2020-07-20
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                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/4821 Thomas A. Oliver
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        abstract:  This dataset results from an analysis of climate exposure, ecological resilience, and social vulnerability to climate change threats for the coral reefs of the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. Standard methodologies were applied to assess ecological resilience and social vulnerability of communities surveyed by the NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) in the Pacific. The analysis focuses primarily on increases in ocean temperatures and the impact of coral bleaching on the U.S.'s Pacific coral reefs and the communities that depend on them. Findings from the analysis are presented in a publication series, Coral Reef Resilience and Social Vulnerability to Climate Change, for the main Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The coral reef resilience indices include 7 ecological factors and temperature variability. The ecological data were derived from NCRMP datasets from 2013 to 2015 -- including coral demographic surveys (coral diversity, coral disease, juvenile coral density, bleaching resistant corals), reef fish surveys (herbivorous fish biomass, fishing depletion), and photoquadrat surveys (macroalgal cover) -- with factor selection and calculation following McClanahan et al. (2012) and Maynard et al. (2015). Temperature variability data are from Heron et al. (2016). The 8 factors were normalized and combined to derive total resilience, bleaching resistance, coral competitiveness and other stressors. All social vulnerability data were derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS), analyzed following Kleiber et al. (2018). Social vulnerability indices include housing characteristics, labor force, personal disruption, population composition, and poverty. Exposure data presented in the publication series are directly from van Hooidonk et al. (2016) and are not included with this dataset. The geographic data file to plot the ecological data generated from the analysis are included with this dataset. The social data can be plotted using the TIGER Line shapefiles for county subdivisions from the U.S. Census Bureau.
        purpose:  To use existing data to inform resilience-based management of the coral reef areas of U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands.This project aimed to make use of NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey data to inform jurisdictional managers about the resilience potential/vulnerabilty of their social-ecological systems.
        credit:  Related Funding Agency: US DOC; NOAA; NOS; Coral Reef Conservation Program
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                            description:  McClanahan TR, Donner SD, Maynard JA, MacNeil MA, Graham NAJ, Maina J, et al. (2012) Prioritizing Key Resilience Indicators to Support Coral Reef Management in a Changing Climate. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42884. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042884
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0211010 v1.1 was published.
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                description:  Parameter or Variable: SOCIOECONOMIC (calculated); Units: unitless; Observation Category: derived products; Sampling Instrument: Not applicable; Sampling and Analyzing Method: In this analysis, we report distinct factors associated with climate exposure, ecological resilience, and social vulnerability, and then aggregate normalized factors in each category to report an overall exposure, resilience, or social vulnerability metric. All social vulnerability data were derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS), analyzed following Kleiber et al. (2018). Social vulnerability indices include housing characteristics, labor force, personal disruption, population composition, and poverty. General method to derive social vulnerability indices: 1.Select social metrics for inclusion into each index. 2.Run principal components analysis (PCA), to weight distinct metrics' contributions to eventual index and to calculate index values. 3.Convert numeric index results into binned data using mean and standard deviations as breaks along continuous scale. 4.Generate aggregate social vulnerability metric by counting the number of the 5 component indices that rate high vulnerability (x > Mean+1SD) in a given geography. 5.Plot data by joining social vulnerability data file to U.S. Census TIGER/Line shapefile for County Subdivisions. The GEO_IDS field in the social data file joins to the GEOID in the TIGER Line shapefiles.; Data Quality Method: Accuracy: For accuracy of each of the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) social metrics, refer to the original survey effort. With regard to the aggregated factors, or indices, bear in mind the indices are the principal component analysis (PCA) weighted combination of normalized factors (social). Completeness Report: As the domain consists of broadly under-surveyed jurisdictions, availability of data played a large role in the selection of metrics to include in our various indices. Uninhabited CCDs and/or islands including lightly habited places like Palmyra were also excluded either due to lack of data or lack of population to survey. Swains was included in this study, however those data were excluded from the resilience and vulnerability publications due to small sample size and peculiar results. Quality Control: The U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) runs thorough quality control procedures described in their respective surveys. Our analysis was reviewed by all co-authors, their respective Division chiefs, and NOAA Fisheries technical and editorial review by the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. This analysis was designed to as closely represent the conceptual vision given available data..
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                description:  Parameter or Variable: CORAL (calculated); Units: unitless; Observation Category: derived products; Sampling Instrument: Not applicable; Sampling and Analyzing Method: In this analysis, we report distinct factors associated with climate exposure, ecological resilience, and social vulnerability, and then aggregate normalized factors in each category to report an overall exposure, resilience, or social vulnerability metric. Coral Reef Resilience indices include 7 ecological factors and temperature variability. The ecological data were derived from NCRMP datasets from 2013 to 2015---including coral demographic surveys (coral diversity, coral disease, juvenile coral density, bleaching resistant corals), reef fish surveys (herbivorous fish biomass, fishing depletion), and photoquadrat surveys (macroalgal cover)---with factor selection and calculation following McClanahan et al. (2012) and Maynard et al. (2015). General method to derive Coral Reef Resilience indices: 1.Select ecological resilience factors for contribution to aggregate index. 2.Normalize included factors, using 5th and 95th quantile. 3.Aggregate selected factors to generate resilience index by summing across all normalized factors, and re-normalizing. 4.Plot data by joining data file to sector shapefile on 'Benthic_Sector' and 'sectrnm' fields, respectively. Data sources for coral diversity, coral disease, juvenile coral density, and bleaching resistant corals generated from coral demographic surveys: 1.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified random surveys (StRS) of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) across American Samoa. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V579431K 2.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified random surveys (StRS) of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) across the Hawaiian Archipelago. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5C24TRH 3.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified random surveys (StRS) of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) across the Mariana Archipelago. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V53N21Q5 4.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified random surveys (StRS) of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5ZW1J8B; Data Quality Method: Accuracy: For accuracy of each of the NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) ecological metrics refer to the original survey effort. With regard to the aggregated factors, or indices, bear in mind the indices are the unweighted combination of normalized factors (ecological). Completeness Report: While the original method cited 11 factors to be most desirable in assessing resilience, data on only 8 factors were widely available across the survey domain. Uninhabited CCDs and/or islands including lightly habited places like Palmyra were also excluded either due to lack of data or lack of population to survey. Swains was included in this study, however those data were excluded from the resilience and vulnerability publications due to small sample size and peculiar results. Quality Control: The NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) runs thorough quality control procedures described in their respective surveys. Our analysis was reviewed by all co-authors, their respective Division chiefs, and NOAA Fisheries technical and editorial review by the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. This analysis was designed to as closely represent the conceptual vision given available data..
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Parameter or Variable: FISH BIOMASS (calculated); Units: unitless; Observation Category: derived products; Sampling Instrument: Not applicable; Sampling and Analyzing Method: In this analysis, we report distinct factors associated with climate exposure, ecological resilience, and social vulnerability, and then aggregate normalized factors in each category to report an overall exposure, resilience, or social vulnerability metric. Coral Reef Resilience indices include 7 ecological factors and temperature variability. The ecological data were derived from NCRMP datasets from 2013 to 2015---including coral demographic surveys (coral diversity, coral disease, juvenile coral density, bleaching resistant corals), reef fish surveys (herbivorous fish biomass, fishing depletion), and photoquadrat surveys (macroalgal cover)---with factor selection and calculation following McClanahan et al. (2012) and Maynard et al. (2015). General method to derive Coral Reef Resilience indices: 1.Select ecological resilience factors for contribution to aggregate index. 2.Normalize included factors, using 5th and 95th quantile. 3.Aggregate selected factors to generate resilience index by summing across all normalized factors, and re-normalizing. 4.Plot data by joining data file to sector shapefile on 'Benthic_Sector' and 'sectrnm' fields, respectively. Data sources for herbivorous fish biomass and fishing depletion generated from reef fish stationary point count surveys (fishing depletion also includes information from Williams et al. 2015): 1.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified random surveys (StRS) of reef fish, including benthic estimate data of American Samoa. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5TB1564 2.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified random surveys (StRS) of reef fish, including benthic estimate data of the Hawaiian Archipelago. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V59C6VR5 3.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified random surveys (StRS) of reef fish, including benthic estimate data of the Mariana Archipelago. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5C827M0 4.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified random surveys (StRS) of reef fish, including benthic estimate data of the Pacific Remote Island Areas. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V58C9TKB; Data Quality Method: Accuracy: For accuracy of each of the NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) ecological metrics refer to the original survey effort. With regard to the aggregated factors, or indices, bear in mind the indices are the unweighted combination of normalized factors (ecological). Completeness Report: While the original method cited 11 factors to be most desirable in assessing resilience, data on only 8 factors were widely available across the survey domain. Uninhabited CCDs and/or islands including lightly habited places like Palmyra were also excluded either due to lack of data or lack of population to survey. Swains was included in this study, however those data were excluded from the resilience and vulnerability publications due to small sample size and peculiar results. Quality Control: The NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) runs thorough quality control procedures described in their respective surveys. Our analysis was reviewed by all co-authors, their respective Division chiefs, and NOAA Fisheries technical and editorial review by the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. This analysis was designed to as closely represent the conceptual vision given available data..
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Parameter or Variable: MACROALGAE (calculated); Units: unitless; Observation Category: derived products; Sampling Instrument: Not applicable; Sampling and Analyzing Method: In this analysis, we report distinct factors associated with climate exposure, ecological resilience, and social vulnerability, and then aggregate normalized factors in each category to report an overall exposure, resilience, or social vulnerability metric. Coral Reef Resilience indices include 7 ecological factors and temperature variability. The ecological data were derived from NCRMP datasets from 2013 to 2015---including coral demographic surveys (coral diversity, coral disease, juvenile coral density, bleaching resistant corals), reef fish surveys (herbivorous fish biomass, fishing depletion), and photoquadrat surveys (macroalgal cover)---with factor selection and calculation following McClanahan et al. (2012) and Maynard et al. (2015). General method to derive Coral Reef Resilience indices: 1.Select ecological resilience factors for contribution to aggregate index. 2.Normalize included factors, using 5th and 95th quantile. 3.Aggregate selected factors to generate resilience index by summing across all normalized factors, and re-normalizing. 4.Plot data by joining data file to sector shapefile on 'Benthic_Sector' and 'sectrnm' fields, respectively. Data sources for macroalgal cover generated from photoquadrat surveys: 1.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic cover derived from analysis of images collected during stratified random surveys (StRS) across American Samoa. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V52V2DFW 2.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic cover derived from analysis of images collected during stratified random surveys (StRS) of the Hawaiian Archipelago. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5JS9NR4 3.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic cover derived from analysis of images collected during stratified random surveys (StRS) across the Mariana Archipelago. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V57M0673 4.NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Ecosystem Sciences Division (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic cover derived from analysis of images collected during stratified random surveys (StRS) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5154FBH; Data Quality Method: Accuracy: For accuracy of each of the NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) ecological metrics refer to the original survey effort. With regard to the aggregated factors, or indices, bear in mind the indices are the unweighted combination of normalized factors (ecological). Completeness Report: While the original method cited 11 factors to be most desirable in assessing resilience, data on only 8 factors were widely available across the survey domain. Uninhabited CCDs and/or islands including lightly habited places like Palmyra were also excluded either due to lack of data or lack of population to survey. Swains was included in this study, however those data were excluded from the resilience and vulnerability publications due to small sample size and peculiar results. Quality Control: The NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) runs thorough quality control procedures described in their respective surveys. Our analysis was reviewed by all co-authors, their respective Division chiefs, and NOAA Fisheries technical and editorial review by the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. This analysis was designed to as closely represent the conceptual vision given available data..
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Parameter or Variable: CORAL - BLEACHING (calculated); Units: unitless; Observation Category: derived products; Sampling Instrument: Not applicable; Sampling and Analyzing Method: In this analysis, we report distinct factors associated with climate exposure, ecological resilience, and social vulnerability, and then aggregate normalized factors in each category to report an overall exposure, resilience, or social vulnerability metric. Coral Reef Resilience indices include 7 ecological factors and temperature variability. The ecological data were derived from NCRMP datasets from 2013 to 2015---including coral demographic surveys (coral diversity, coral disease, juvenile coral density, bleaching resistant corals), reef fish surveys (herbivorous fish biomass, fishing depletion), and photoquadrat surveys (macroalgal cover)---with factor selection and calculation following McClanahan et al. (2012) and Maynard et al. (2015). General method to derive Coral Reef Resilience indices: 1.Select ecological resilience factors for contribution to aggregate index. 2.Normalize included factors, using 5th and 95th quantile. 3.Aggregate selected factors to generate resilience index by summing across all normalized factors, and re-normalizing. 4.Plot data by joining data file to sector shapefile on 'Benthic_Sector' and 'sectrnm' fields, respectively.; Data Quality Method: Accuracy: For accuracy of each of the NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) ecological metrics refer to the original survey effort. With regard to the aggregated factors, or indices, bear in mind the indices are the unweighted combination of normalized factors (ecological). Completeness Report: While the original method cited 11 factors to be most desirable in assessing resilience, data on only 8 factors were widely available across the survey domain. Uninhabited CCDs and/or islands including lightly habited places like Palmyra were also excluded either due to lack of data or lack of population to survey. Swains was included in this study, however those data were excluded from the resilience and vulnerability publications due to small sample size and peculiar results. Quality Control: The NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) runs thorough quality control procedures described in their respective surveys. Our analysis was reviewed by all co-authors, their respective Division chiefs, and NOAA Fisheries technical and editorial review by the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. This analysis was designed to as closely represent the conceptual vision given available data..
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Parameter or Variable: WATER TEMPERATURE (calculated); Units: unitless; Observation Category: derived products; Sampling Instrument: Not applicable; Sampling and Analyzing Method: In this analysis, we report distinct factors associated with climate exposure, ecological resilience, and social vulnerability, and then aggregate normalized factors in each category to report an overall exposure, resilience, or social vulnerability metric. Coral Reef Resilience indices include 7 ecological factors and temperature variability. Temperature variability data are from Heron et al. (2016). General method to derive Coral Reef Resilience indices: 1.Select ecological resilience factors for contribution to aggregate index. 2.Normalize included factors, using 5th and 95th quantile. 3.Aggregate selected factors to generate resilience index by summing across all normalized factors, and re-normalizing. 4.Plot data by joining data file to sector shapefile on 'Benthic_Sector' and 'sectrnm' fields, respectively.; Data Quality Method: Accuracy: With regard to the aggregated factors, or indices, bear in mind the indices are the unweighted combination of normalized factors. Completeness Report: While the original method cited 11 factors to be most desirable in assessing resilience, data on only 8 factors were widely available across the survey domain. Uninhabited CCDs and/or islands including lightly habited places like Palmyra were also excluded either due to lack of data or lack of population to survey. Swains was included in this study, however those data were excluded from the resilience and vulnerability publications due to small sample size and peculiar results. Quality Control: Our analysis was reviewed by all co-authors, their respective Division chiefs, and NOAA Fisheries technical and editorial review by the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. This analysis was designed to as closely represent the conceptual vision given available data..
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        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
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            organisationName:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
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