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National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected for climate stations across American Samoa from 2018-06-19 to 2018-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0240353)

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The coral reef benthic community data described here result from the annotation (classification) of benthic images collected during photoquadrat surveys at permanent sites in the islands and atolls of American Samoa in 2018. These surveys are conducted by the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD, formerly the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division) as part of NOAA's ongoing National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) according to protocols established by ESD and NCRMP.

SCUBA divers conducted benthic photoquadrat surveys at permanent sites established in coral reef habitats by ESD. A select number of these sites were chosen in hard-bottom habitat at ~15-m depths, and a subset of the permanent sites (climate stations) were established at north, south, east, and west points around each of the islands and atolls. The divers estimated and delineated each site’s rectangular perimeter by temporarily placing measuring tapes with 1-m markers starting from a permanently installed reference stake on the reef. Along the nearshore 10-m side of the survey site and the downslope 5-m side, the measuring tapes marked every meter of the L-shaped 15-m transect used for photoquadrat documentation. The divers photographed the reef at 1-m intervals on both sides of the 15-m tape, generating 30 photographs per survey site.

Benthic habitat images were quantitatively analyzed using the web-based annotation tool, CoralNet (Beijbom et al. 2015). Ten points were randomly overlaid on each image and human analysts identified the organism or type of substrate beneath, with 300 annotations (points) generated per site. Benthic elements falling under each point were identified to genus/morphology for hard corals, and to genus/functional group for algae, invertebrates, and other taxa following Lozada-Misa et al. (2017). In general, the analysis resulted in three levels of benthic community data, including taxa group (Tier 1: hard coral, soft coral, macroalgae, turf algae, etc.), morphology (Tier 2: massive, branching, upright macroalgae, etc.), and genus (Tier 3). These benthic data can ultimately be used to produce estimates of relative abundance (percentage of benthic cover), frequency of occurrence, benthic community taxonomic composition, and relative generic richness.
  • Cite as: Ecosystem Sciences Division, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2021). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected for climate stations across American Samoa from 2018-06-19 to 2018-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0240353). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0240353. Accessed [date].
gov.noaa.nodc:0240353
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Distributor NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
+1-301-713-3277
NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
ncei.info@noaa.gov
Time Period 2018-06-19 to 2018-07-16
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates
West: -171.092233
East: -168.1457
South: -14.55563
North: -11.04568868
Spatial Coverage Map
General Documentation
Associated Resources
  • National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic cover derived from analysis of images collected from climate stations across American Samoa
    • NCEI Collection
      Navigate directly to the URL for data access and direct download.
  • Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2016: National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected for Climate Stations across American Samoa since 2015, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/25383.
  • Coral Reef Conservation Program (2016). Documentation for NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) data archived at NCEI (NCEI Accession 0157633). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0157633.
  • Towards automated annotation of benthic survey images: variability of human experts and operational modes of automation
  • Parent ID (indicates this dataset is related to other data):
    • gov.noaa.nodc:NCRMP-Climate-Images-AmSam
Publication Dates
  • publication: 2021-09-03
Data Presentation Form Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status Complete - production of the data has been completed
Historical archive - data has been stored in an offline storage facility
Data Update Frequency As needed
Supplemental Information
Submission Package ID: JP08F6
Purpose The NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) details a long term approach to provide an ecosystem perspective via monitoring climate, fish, benthic, and socioeconomic variables in a consistent and integrated manner. The NCRMP coordinates various NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) biological, physical, and human dimensions activities into a cohesive NOAA-wide effort. Through the implementation of the NCRMP, NOAA is able to clearly and concisely communicate results of national-scale monitoring to national, state, and territorial policy makers, resource managers, and the public on a periodic basis. NCRMP is a framework for conducting sustained observations of biological, climate, and socioeconomic indicators at 10 priority coral reefs across the U.S. and its territories. This integrated approach consolidates monitoring of coral reefs under a uniform method in the Pacific, Atlantic, Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico for the first time. NCRMP is funded by the CRCP and supported by NOAA Fisheries, NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), and many other partners. The Ecosystem Sciences Division at NOAA Fisheries is leading climate monitoring in the U.S. Pacific Islands Region. The climate component of NCRMP in the Pacific provides a comprehensive view of climate change impacts on coral reef ecosystems and helps identify areas of resilience and vulnerability. The key indicators used to identify and monitor climate-driven trends include 1) thermal stress caused by changes in sea temperature, 2) ocean acidification resulting from changes in carbonate chemistry, and 3) ecological impacts by collecting data on coral growth rates, erosion, and community structure to understand the impacts of thermal stress and ocean acidification on the ecosystem. Each year, ESD scientists work closely with CRCP and partners during Pacific RAMP missions to collect data using moored oceanographic (subsurface temperature recorders) and ecological (calcification accretion units [CAUs] and autonomous reef monitoring structures [ARMS]) instruments stationed at fixed sites in the Pacific Ocean, and water samples collected by divers. The in-situ data (along with satellite-based observations) are also used in modeling efforts. Innovative analysis techniques are used to develop products that give fellow scientists, managers, decision makers and the public a better understanding of a region's resources and how they are changing over time.
Use Limitations
  • accessLevel: Public
  • Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Dataset Citation
  • Cite as: Ecosystem Sciences Division, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2021). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected for climate stations across American Samoa from 2018-06-19 to 2018-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0240353). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0240353. Accessed [date].
Cited Authors
Principal Investigators
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Contributors
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Acknowledgments
  • Related Funding Agency: NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program
Theme keywords NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS WMO_CategoryCode
  • oceanography
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
  • Numeric Data Sets > Benthic
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Benthic Habitat
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Microbiota > Blue-green Algae
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Algal Cover
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Crustose Coralline Algae
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Encrusting Macroalgae
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Turf Algae
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Baseline studies
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Quadrat Monitoring > Photograph Analysis
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect Monitoring > Belt Transect
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect monitoring
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > In Situ Biological
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Photographic Analysis
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Rapid Assessment Studies
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Mollusks > Tridacna
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Sponges
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Benthic biology
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Coral Cover
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Hard Coral Cover
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Hard Coral Cover Live percentage
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > OctoCoral Cover
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral Communities
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Macroinvertebrates
  • EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Plants > Seagrass
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords Provider Keywords
  • CoralNet
  • robot-assisted annotations
Data Center keywords NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS Contributing Data Centers
  • CRED
  • CREP
  • Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
  • Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
  • ESD
  • Ecosystem Sciences Division
  • PIFSC
  • Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
Platform keywords NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords ICES/SeaDataNet Ship Codes
Instrument keywords NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Provider Instruments
  • machine-learning algorithm
Place keywords NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS CoRIS Place Thesaurus
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > American Samoa (14S170W0000)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > Ofu Island (14S169W0013)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > Olosega Island (14S169W0014)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > Rose Atoll (14S168W0001)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > Swains Atoll (11S171W0001)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > Ta'u Island (14S169W0012)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > Tutuila Island (14S170W0016)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > Ofu Island > Ofu (14S169W0002)
  • COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > Olosega Island > Olosega (14S169W0016)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > American Samoa > American Samoa (14S170W0000)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > American Samoa > Rose Atoll (14S168W0001)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > American Samoa > Swains Atoll (11S171W0001)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > American Samoa > Tutuila Island (14S170W0016)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Manu'a Group > Ofu (14S169W0002)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Manu'a Group > Ofu Island (14S169W0013)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Manu'a Group > Olosega (14S169W0016)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Manu'a Group > Olosega Island (14S169W0014)
  • OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Manu'a Group > Ta'u Island (14S169W0012)
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
Project keywords NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS CRCP Project
  • 743
  • National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP)
Keywords NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
Use Constraints
  • Cite as: Ecosystem Sciences Division, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2021). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected for climate stations across American Samoa from 2018-06-19 to 2018-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0240353). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0240353. Accessed [date].
Access Constraints
  • Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free. However, fees may apply for custom orders, data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • 2021-09-03T00:11:11Z - NCEI Accession 0240353 v1.1 was published.
Output Datasets
Lineage information for: dataset
Processing Steps
  • Parameter or Variable: BENTHIC COMMUNITIES (measured); Units: unitless; Observation Category: visual estimate; Sampling Instrument: photograph; Sampling and Analyzing Method: Benthic habitat images collected during photoquadrat surveys are quantitatively analyzed visually with the assistance of a web-based, machine-learning, image annotation tool, CoralNet. The robot tool annotates ten random points on each image for a total of 300 points per site, which are then reviewed by human analysts. The human annotations are then used to train the robot. This data is the final form of the robot-assisted human annotations. Taxa identification occurs at three functional group levels of benthic cover. Tier 1 (e.g., hard coral, soft coral, macroalgae, turf algae, etc.), Tier 2 (e.g., Hard Coral = massive, branching, foliose, encrusting, etc.; Macroalgae = upright macroalgae, encrusting macroalgae, bluegreen macroalgae, and Halimeda, etc.), and Tier 3 (e.g., Hard Coral = Astreopora sp, Favia sp, Pocillopora, etc.; Macroalgae = Caulerpa sp, Dictyosphaeria sp, Padina sp, etc.); Data Quality Method: ACCURACY: 1) Each analyst is required to complete training and a calibration exercise prior to image analysis (classification/annotation), and follows the Benthic Image Analysis Standard Operating Procedure (Lozada-Misa et al. 2017). For a calibration exercise, a subset of photos (~100-150) are selected from the production series and CoralNet assigns 10 random fixed points per photo. Each analyst classifies the same set of points for each of the photos used in the calibration exercise. The goal of the calibration exercise is to assess inter-observer variability. 2) Handheld GPS units were used to locate random sites and mark site locations. COMPLETENESS REPORT: The data set derived from the image analysis is as good as the images themselves; poor images with low contrast, inappropriate white balance, or out of focus may have to be discarded. Therefore, benthic estimates for some sites may derive from differing numbers of points between sites. Although the analysis process is statistically robust to allow for differing n (points) between sites, users should be aware of this limitation..
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • photograph
Platform
  • NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai
Last Modified: 2023-02-06T13:43:43Z
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