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AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0 global 4km sea surface temperature (SST) climatologies for 1985-2001


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            title:  AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0 global 4km sea surface temperature (SST) climatologies for 1985-2001
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                date:  2004-08-10
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                  Anchor:  NCEI Dataset ID gov.noaa.nodc:AVHRR_Pathfinder-NODC-v5.0-climatologies
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                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/717 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
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                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/717 University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
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                individualName:  Halliwell, Vicki
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                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/717 University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
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                individualName:  Evans, Robert
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                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/717 University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
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            otherCitationDetails:  NODC Accessions 0006682 (daily), 0009534 (5-day), 0009535 (7-day), 0009536 (8-day), 0009537 (annual), 0009538 (monthly), 0001658 (seasonal)
        abstract:  The 4 km Pathfinder effort at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) is an extension of and improvement on the sea surface temperature (SST) fields from the NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans 9km Pathfinder dataset. In this 4 km Pathfinder project, some important shortcomings in the original 9 km data have been corrected, and the entire time series has been reprocessed at the 4 km Global Area Coverage (GAC) level, the highest resolution possible globally. Pathfinder AVHRR SST data for daily, 5-day, 7-day, 8-day, monthly, and yearly periods from 1981-2008 are archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center under separate accession numbers. The SST climatologies are available as Hierarchical Data Format (.HDF) data files for 1985-2001 and include daily, 5-day, 7-day, 8-day, monthly, yearly, and seasonal time periods which are filed as separate NODC accessions. Four corresponding graphics (climatologies) in GeoTIFF format are provided for the seasonal climatologies. Although the data are represented using 16-bit in the .HDF files, 8-bit GeoTIFF files were developed to facilitate access and use of these data by the widest variety of users. As a result, the GeoTIFF representations of the .HDF files are not a complete representation of the data in the .HDF files.
        purpose:  To provide sea surface temperature data and related parameters with good temporal consistency, high accuracy and spatial resolution, and for archive and distribution through the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). This SST data collection is intended primarily for climate related applications and studies and is being established to help form the basis for a Climate Data Record for SST.
        credit:  This project was supported in part by a grant from the NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) Program for satellites.
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              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/datatype/details/319 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Remote Sensing > Satellite (digital scans) > AVHRR
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Water Temperature
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > 4km Pathfinder
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > 9km Pathfinder
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            otherConstraints:  Please also cite: Casey, K.S., T.B. Brandon, P. Cornillon, and R. Evans (2010). "The Past, Present and Future of the AVHRR Pathfinder SST Program", in Oceanography from Space: Revisited, eds. V. Barale, J.F.R. Gower, and L. Alberotanza, Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-8681-5_16
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                            description:  Institution web page
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/295 US National Oceanographic Data Center
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            electronicMailAddress:  NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  US National Oceanographic Data Center website
                            description:  Institution web page
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 US DOC; NOAA; NESDIS; National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) documentDigital
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) program
        language:
          LanguageCode:  eng; USA
        characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) environment
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
        environmentDescription:  Native Dataset Environment: NCSA Hierarchical Data Format (HDF 4), Scientific Data Set (HDF-SDS) Technical Prerequisites: PC. Mac or other server (Unix, Linux), standard Internet browser. FTP capability
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -180
                eastBoundLongitude:  180
                southBoundLatitude:  -90
                northBoundLatitude:  90
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1985-01-01
                    endPosition:  2001-12-31
        supplementalInformation:  The 4 km-resolution time series used to create these seasonal climatologies is computed from 1985-2001 using the Version 5.0 Pathfinder algorithm, an improved version of the previously most successful of the many methods used to derive SST from AVHRR observations (see Barton (1995) for a review of earlier techniques), the University of Miami Pathfinder version v4.2 SST algorithm (described fully in Kilpatrick et al., 2001). The v4.2 algorithm offered marked improvement over operational retrieval algorithms such as MCSST and was applied to AVHRR data to maximize accuracy and to minimize artificial fluctuations arising from the sequence of AVHRR instruments flown on NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites during the past 2 decades. The 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder SSTs have already been shown to be the highest quality product currently available for the construction of global climatologies (Casey and Cornillon, 1999) and longer-term SST trend determination (Casey and Cornillon, 2001), and have been demonstrated to be accurate within about 0.3 degrees C under optimal conditions (Kearns et al., 2000). Relative to the older 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder data, the new, ~ 4 km resolution Pathfinder Version 5.0 global SSTs increase detail by a factor of four simply by virtue of the increased resolution. The increase in detail over widely used but relatively coarse SST datasets such as Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (OISSTv2; Reynolds et al., 2002) and the Hadley Centre's Global Sea Ice and SST (HadISST1; Rayner et al., 2003) is far greater. In addition to the increased resolution, significant improvements have been made in the Version 5.0 which enhance the usefulness of the SST fields. Currently, these enhancements include the use of sea ice in the quality level determination scheme, inclusion of many inland water bodies, and the use of a greatly improved land mask. The greatest improvements are seen in coastal zones, marginal seas, and boundary current regions where SST gradients are often large and their impact on operational or research products is greatest. Separate SST products for daytime and nighttime AVHRR retrievals are made to better understand the differences in skin and bulk temperatures, since mean differences between AVHRR-measured skin temperatures and bulk temperatures of 0.1 to 0.2 degrees C (Schluessel et al., 1990) and locally varying differences of up to 1.8 degrees C (Minnett et al., 2000) have been observed. The following is information to be used when reading GeoTIFFs generated from the seasonal climatology data files: Geotiff_Information: Version: 1 Key_Revision: 1.0 Tagged_Information: ModelTiepointTag (2,3):0 0 0-180 90 0 ModelPixelScaleTag (1,3):0.0439453 0.0439453 0 End_Of_Tags. Keyed_Information: GTModelTypeGeoKey (Short,1): ModelTypeGeographic GTRasterTypeGeoKey (Short,1): RasterPixelIsArea GTCitationGeoKey (Ascii,17): 'LONG/LAT E005' GeographicTypeGeoKey (Short,1): GCS_WGS_84 GeogAngularUnitsGeoKey (Short,1): Angular_Degree ProjLinearUnitsGeoKey (Short,1): Linear_Meter End_Of_Keys. End_Of_Geotiff. GCS: 4326/WGS 84 Datum: 6326/World Geodetic System 1984 Ellipsoid: 7030/WGS 84 (6378137.00,6356752.31) Prime Meridian: 8901/Greenwich (0.000000/ 0d 0' 0.00""E) Projection Linear Units: 9001/metre (1.000000m) Corner Coordinates: Upper Left (180d 0' 0.00"W, 90d 0' 0.00"N) Lower Left (180d 0' 0.00"W, 90d 0' 0.00"S) Upper Right (180d 0' 0.00"E, 90d 0' 0.00"N) Lower Right (180d 0' 0.00"E, 90d 0' 0.00"S) Center (0d 0' 0.00"E, 0d 0' 0.00"N)
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    contentInfo:  (MD_FeatureCatalogueDescription)
        includedWithDataset:  true
        featureTypes:
          LocalName:
        featureCatalogueCitation: (unknown)  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Entity and Attribute Information
            date: (unknown)
            otherCitationDetails:  Entity and Attribute Overview: Climatologies are created from a 4 km-resolution time series of sea surface temperatures computed from 1985-2001. The time series used to generate the climatologies include (a) SST values, (b) SST values for each pixel location (all-pixel SST files), (c) first-guess SST, (d) number of observations falling in each 4 km bin, (e) standard deviation of the observations in each 4 km bin, (f) overall SST quality flag (from the lowest quality of 0 to the highest quality of 7), and (g, h) tests that were passed and failed to determine the overall quality flag (masks 1 and 2). The resulting climatologies include only SST values. Entity and Attribute Detail Citation: 4 km Pathfinder Version 5.0 User Guide (https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/pathfinder4km/userguide.html)
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        electronicMailAddress:  NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free. However, fees may apply for custom orders, data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
                orderingInstructions:  Contact NCEI for other distribution options and instructions.
            distributorFormat:  (MD_Format)
                name:  HDF
                version:  4
                specification:  NCSA Hierarchical Data Format (HDF 4), Scientific Data Set (HDF-SDS)
            distributorFormat:  (MD_Format)
                name:  JPEG
                version: (unknown)
                specification:  Joint Photographic Experts Group file format
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: http://www.ncei.noaa.gov/thredds-ocean/catalog/pathfinder/Version5.0_Climatologies/1985_2001/catalog.html
                    protocol:  THREDDS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browsers can browse THREDDS Data Servers and specialized THREDDS software can enable more sophisticated data access and visualizations.
                    name:  THREDDS
                    description:  These data are available through a variety of services via a THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). Depending on the dataset, the TDS can provide WMS, WCS, DAP, HTTP, and other data access and metadata services as well. For more information on the TDS, see http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/thredds/current/tds/.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: http://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/oceans/pathfinder/Version5.0_Climatologies/1985_2001/
                    protocol:  HTTP
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  HTTP
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for data access and direct download.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: ftp://ftp-oceans.ncei.noaa.gov/pub/data.nodc/pathfinder/Version5.0_Climatologies/1985_2001/
                    protocol:  FTP
                    applicationProfile:  Any FTP client
                    name:  FTP
                    description:  These data are available through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). FTP is no longer supported by most internet browsers. You may copy and paste the FTP link to the data into an FTP client (e.g., FileZilla or WinSCP).
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/products/avhrr-pathfinder-sst
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  4 km AVHRR Pathfinder Project
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/AVHRR_Pathfinder-NODC-v5.0-climatologies
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  NCEI Dataset Landing Page
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page with download links.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/metadata/granule/geoportal/?from=0&size=10&esdsl=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22query_string%22%3A%7B%22analyze_wildcard%22%3Atrue%2C%22query%22%3A%22fileid%3AAVHRR_Pathfinder-NODC-v5.0-climatologies.*%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%7D#searchPanel
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  Granule Search
                    description:  Search for data granules belonging to this collection (a granule is the smallest aggregation of data that can be independently described and retrieved).
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) search
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) series
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Horizontal Positional Accuracy
            evaluationMethodDescription:  The major sources of error in geo-locating AVHRR data are (a) drift in the spacecraft clock (which causes errors in the estimated along-track position), and (b) uncertainty errors in spacecraft and sensor attitude. (a) Clock Correction: To minimize error in the along track position estimated by the orbital model, a satellite clock correction factor is applied to the time code imbedded in each piece. The method used to determine these clock correction factors is presented below. The clock aboard a given satellite drifts continually at a relatively constant rate (e.g., for NOAA-14, ~9msday-1) compared to the reference clock on Earth. Because of this drift, the NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Operation Control Center periodically sends a command to the satellite to reset the on-board clock to a new baseline thereby eliminating the accumulation of a large time offset error between the Earth and satellite clocks. To correct for clock drift between these resets, correction factors were determined from a database of satellite clock time and Earth time offsets collected at the RSMAS High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving station. During HRPT transmission, both the satellite clock (used to create the embedded time code in each piece) and the Earth clock are simultaneously available. The clock correction bias was determined by (1) visual examination of the Earth/satellite clock differences collected in the database to locate the precise magnitude and timing of clock resets performed by the Satellite Operation Control Center and (2) recorded time differences between the identified reset periods were then filtered to remove spurious noise, and regressed against the corresponding satellite time to determine the clock drift correction. These drift corrections were then applied to all data time-stamped during a given reset period. Refer to Sea Surface Temperature Global Area Coverage (GAC) Processing Appendix A: Calibration and Navigation Correction Factors for a list of clock offsets for each NOAA spacecraft (http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/pathfinder/Processing/proc_app_a.html). (b) Attitude Corrections: After clock correction, a nominal attitude correction is then applied to minimize the uncertainty in regard to the direction in which the spacecraft is pointing. The nominal attitude correction applied was determined by averaging the absolute attitude of the spacecraft over many geographic locations and times along the orbital track. The method used to determine the absolute attitude of the spacecraft involves matching a digital coastal outline to a given image and recording the amount of pitch, yaw, and roll required to make the outline and land coincide. This method has the advantage that it can be performed over small geographical distances and is similar to other techniques which rely on widely separated geographical control points to anchor the navigation. The resultant navigation information, output by the SECTOR procedure for each piece, provides the mapping parameters needed to convert between the satellite perspective of pixel and scan line, and Earth-based latitude and longitude coordinates. Refer to Sea Surface Temperature Global Area Coverage (GAC) Processing Appendix A: Calibration and Navigation Correction Factors for attitude correction factors for each NOAA spacecraft (http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/pathfinder/Processing/proc_app_a.html).
            result:  (DQ_QuantitativeResult)
                valueUnit:
                  BaseUnit:
                    identifier:  metre
                    unitsSystem:  http://www.bipm.org/en/si/
                value: (unknown)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Refer to the Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report in this metadata record for a discussion of sources of error in geo-locating AVHRR data.
            result:  (DQ_QuantitativeResult)
                valueUnit:
                  BaseUnit:
                    identifier:  metre
                    unitsSystem:  http://www.bipm.org/en/si/
                value: (unknown)
        report:  (DQ_CompletenessOmission)
            evaluationMethodDescription:  - This SST climatology is very nearly complete, especially between 60 N and 60 S. Most gaps are in the extreme high latitudes and are due to the presence of persistent sea ice.- Although the data are represented using 16-bit in the .HDF files, 8-bit GeoTIFF files were developed for the seasonal climatologies to facilitate access and use of these data by the widest variety of users. As a result, the GeoTIFF representations of the .HDF files are not a complete representation of the data in the .HDF files.- The .HDF files are 16-bit files, and pixel values can range from 0 to 65535 (2 to the 16th power). However, realistic pixel values for SST will always be less than 600 or so. Land has a value of 1. SST in degC = 0.075 x pixel value - 3. Temperatures are represented in 0.075 degC increments- Differences in scale and offset between .HDF and .GeoTIFF files:Derived GeoTiffs (8-bit files): Pixel values can range from 0 to 255. Land has a value of 255. SST in degC = 0.15 x pixel value - 3. Temperatures are represented in 0.15 degC increments.
            result: (unknown)
        report:  (DQ_ConceptualConsistency)
            measureDescription:  Files are run against the program (algorithm) MD5 to verify data integrity which generates a code, called an MD5 checksum. After files are transferred from one place to another, the program can be run on the file again and a new code generated. The old MD5 checksum code should be identical to the new MD5 checksum code. If not, the file was somehow corrupted during transfer (see original MD5 documentation at http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1321.txt)
            result: (unknown)
        report:  (DQ_NonQuantitativeAttributeAccuracy)
            measureDescription:  See qual, mask1, and mask2; stdv and num files (quality flag and statistical fields for 4 km AVHRR Pathfinder available data) available online from the NODC Satellite Oceanography Group at: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/pathfinder4km/available.html
            result: (inapplicable)
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:  The Version 5.0 Pathfinder SSTs require several important pieces of information. This information is categorized below by the four overall steps in the Pathfinder processing system (steps A-D); in addition, several more steps are required to produce the climatologies (step E). AVHRR Pathfinder SST Processing Steps A. Ingestion, calibration, and navigation of Global Area Coverage (GAC) data a. Calibrate and convert AVHRR digital counts for channels 1 through 5 to radiances i. Obtain AVHRR channels 1 through 5 radiometer count data. ii. Channels 1 and 2 require pre-launch calibration coefficients for linear counts-to-radiance conversion, followed by a correction for temporal changes using sensor decay rate data and then a correction for inter-satellite differences using inter-satellite standardization data to the NOAA-9 reference, both of which use Libyan desert target area data. iii. Channels 3, 4, and 5 require both the above pre-launch calibration data and onboard blackbody (space view and sensor base plate) data for non-linear counts-to-radiance conversion. b. Navigation, Clock, and Attitude Corrections i. Satellite clock corrections need Earth time offset data based on RSMAS High-Resolution Picture Transmission data. ii. Attitude corrections are made using coastline comparison data. iii. At this point, navigated, calibrated albedos/brightness temperatures are available for all five channels. Note that channels 1-2 are not used in the Pathfinder SST algorithm, and channel 3 is used only in assignment of a quality indicator (see step B.d.i.). B. SST Calculation a. Channel 4 and 5 brightness temperatures are converted to SST in degrees C using the Pathfinder algorithm, which requires a set of monthly coefficients. b. These coefficients are derived using the Pathfinder Buoy Matchup Database. This is a set of in situ buoy SST observations and collocated AVHRR data. c. In addition, a first-guess SST field is needed by the algorithm. This first-guess field is the Reynolds Weekly Global Optimally Interpolated SST version 2 (OISSTv2) product. Note: the older 9km Pathfinder used OISST version 1. d. Quality Flag Assignment i. A Channel 3, 4, and 5 brightness temperature test is performed. These data are already available from step A.a.iii. ii. The viewing angle is evaluated using a satellite zenith angle check. iii. A reference field comparison check is made against the Reynolds OISST used in step B.c. iv. A stray sunlight test is performed which requires information on whether the data in question are to left or right of nadir. v. An edge test is performed which checks the location of the pixel within a scan line and the location of the scan line within the processing piece (a piece is a subset of an entire orbit file). vi. A glint test is performed which requires a glint index calculated according to the Cox and Munk (1954) formulation. vii. A sea ice mask is used to identify pixels falling on areas of sea ice. The ice mask is based on weekly SSM/I data and the ice information contained in the Reynolds OISSTv2. (Note: this step was not present in the 9 km Pathfinder reprocessing and is used only in the 4km Version 5.0 Pathfinder product.) viii. These steps are all combined into an overall quality flag assignment for each pixel. C. Spatial Binning a. An equal-area is grid is defined into which GAC pixels are binned. No external data are needed, only information on the equal-area binning strategy itself. b. A data-day is defined following a spatial data-day definition. See https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/pathfinder4km/Data-day.pdf for a description of the spatial data-day definition, written by Guillermo Podesta, University of Miami RSMAS. c. A land mask is applied to the dataset, identifying pixels that fall on land. This land mask was based on an old CIA database in the 9 km Pathfinder (no citation or further information is known). In the 4 km Version 5.0 Pathfinder, a new and improved land mask based on a 1 km resolution MODIS dataset derived by the USGS Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center is used (see http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/modis/mod12q1.html for more info.) D. Temporal Binning a. The spatially binned pieces from step C are accumulated into a single ascending (daytime) or descending (nighttime) file for each day. In case of overlapping satellite passes, only the best pixels of equivalent quality are binned. No external information is needed, only information about the accumulation procedure itself. Note: the new 4 km Version 5.0 Pathfinder also generates temporal averages on 5-day, 7-day, 8-day, monthly, and yearly periods. b. A final comparison is made to an internal 3-week Pathfinder comparison field. No external data are required, only knowledge of the Pathfinder reference check. c. Fields are reformatted from equal-area to equal-angle for distribution in HDF format. Note: the old 9 km Pathfinder data were distributed in HDF4 Raster format, while the new 4 km Version 5.0 Pathfinder data are distributed in HDF4-SDS format, with tiling (internally compressed chunks) enabled. d. The result of all these steps is the high-level Pathfinder SST product. E. Additional processes required for SST climatologies: a. The individual files generated by the Version 5.0 Pathfinder Project for 1985-2001 are averaged to create a set of initial climatologies. For example, January of 1986, January of 1987, ...., January of 2001 are averaged to create a climatological January. Only the highest quality data (overall quality flag=7) are used. b. Then, following the steps described in Casey and Cornillon, 1999 (Journal of Climate, vol 12, pp 1848-1863): i. Apply a 7x7 median-filling which fills most of any remaining gaps in the initial monthly climatology. No already present data are modified. ii. Linearly fill any remaining gaps using the previous and following monthly climatological values if they are available. No already present data are modified. iii. Apply another 7x7 median-filling in case any gaps remain. No already present data are modified. iv. The final step, described in Casey and Cornillon (1999), of applying a 7x7 median-filter to smooth the entire field, is not performed. Steps are modified to produce daily, -5, -7, -8, seasonal, and yearly climatologies as required.
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Dr. Kenneth S. Casey
                    organisationName:  NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                            voice:  (301)713-3272 x133
                            facsimile:  (301)713-3300
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            deliveryPoint:  SSMC3, 4th Floor, Room 4853, Route: E/OC1, 1315 East-West Highway
                            city:  Silver Spring
                            administrativeArea:  Maryland
                            postalCode:  20910
                            country:  USA
                            electronicMailAddress:  Kenneth.Casey@noaa.gov
                        hoursOfService:  9:00 AM-4:00 PM, EST
                        contactInstructions:  Phone/FAX/E-mail/letter
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
            source:  (LI_Source)
                description:  Source Contribution: 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Daily Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001) (NODC Accession 0006682)
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Pathfinder Version 5.0 Daily Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001)
                    alternateTitle:  0006682
                    date:  (CI_Date)
                        date:  2006-09-20
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), and Edward J. Kearns, Vicki Halliwell, and Robert Evans, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) resourceProvider
                    series:  (CI_Series)
                        name:  not applicable
                        issueIdentification:  Pathfinder Version 5.0
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            description:  publication date
                            beginPosition:  1985-01-01
                            endPosition:  2001-12-31
            source:  (LI_Source)
                description:  Source Contribution: 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 5-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001) (NODC Accession 0009534)
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Pathfinder Version 5.0 5-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001)
                    alternateTitle:  0009534
                    date:  (CI_Date)
                        date:  2006-09-20
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), and Edward J. Kearns, Vicki Halliwell, and Robert Evans, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
                        role:  (CI_RoleCode) resourceProvider
                    series:  (CI_Series)
                        name:  not applicable
                        issueIdentification:  Pathfinder Version 5.0
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimePeriod:
                            description:  publication date
                            beginPosition:  1985-01-01
                            endPosition:  2001-12-31
            source:  (LI_Source)
                description:  Source Contribution: 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 7-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001) (NODC Accession 0009535)
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Pathfinder Version 5.0 7-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001)
                    alternateTitle:  0009535
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                        date:  2006-09-20
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                        organisationName:  Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), and Edward J. Kearns, Vicki Halliwell, and Robert Evans, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
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                            endPosition:  2001-12-31
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                description:  Source Contribution: 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 8-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001) (NODC Accession 0009536)
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Pathfinder Version 5.0 8-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001)
                    alternateTitle:  0009536
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                        date:  2006-09-20
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                        organisationName:  Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), and Edward J. Kearns, Vicki Halliwell, and Robert Evans, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
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                description:  Source Contribution: 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Annual Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001) (NODC Accession 0009537)
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Pathfinder Version 5.0 Annual Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001)
                    alternateTitle:  0009537
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                        date:  2006-09-20
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                        organisationName:  Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), and Edward J. Kearns, Vicki Halliwell, and Robert Evans, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
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                description:  Source Contribution: 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Monthly Climatologies (1985-2001) (NODC Accession 0009538)
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Pathfinder Version 5.0 Monthly Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001)
                    alternateTitle:  0009538
                    date:  (CI_Date)
                        date:  2006-09-20
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName:  Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), and Edward J. Kearns, Vicki Halliwell, and Robert Evans, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
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                description:  Source Contribution: 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Seasonal Climatologies 1985-2001 (NODC Accession 0001658)
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Pathfinder Version 5.0 Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Climatologies (1985-2001)
                    alternateTitle:  0001658
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                        date:  2006-09-20
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                        organisationName:  Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), and Edward J. Kearns, Vicki Halliwell, and Robert Evans, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
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                            description:  publication date
                            beginPosition:  1985-01-01
                            endPosition:  2001-12-31
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0001658 was revised and v2.2 was published.
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                  DateTime:  2004-08-10T18:59:12Z
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0006682 v1.1 was published.
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                  DateTime:  2006-09-20T19:11:52Z
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                  DateTime:  2006-09-28T14:17:27Z
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                  DateTime:  2021-10-15T01:45:06Z
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                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
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            organisationName:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
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    acquisitionInformation:  (MI_AcquisitionInformation)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  AVHRR-2
            type:  AVHRR-2
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2 The AVHRR-2 is a multi purpose imaging instrument used for global measurement of cloud cover, sea surface temperature, ice, snow and vegetation cover and characteristics. This instrument was initially carried on NOAA-7 (launched June 1981) and was last flown on NOAA-14 which was decommissioned in 2005. This 5-channel radiometer covering 2 visible and 3 thermal infrared between 0.63 and 12.0 micrometers, has an instantaneous footprint of 1.1 km at the sub satellite point. Additional Information: https://nwpsaf.eu/deliverables/aapp/avhrr_2.html
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            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  AVHRR-3
            type:  AVHRR-3
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3 The AVHRR-3 is a six channel scanning radiometer providing 3 solar channels in the visible-near infrared region and 3 thermal infrared channels. The AVHRR-3 has two one-micrometer wide channels between 10.3 and 12.5 micrometers. This latest version of AVHRR was first carried on NOAA-15 launched in May 1998 and subsequently in all current NOAA and MetOp platforms. Measuring the same view, this array of diverse wavelengths, after processing, permits multi spectral analysis for more precisely defining hydrologic, oceanographic, and meteorological parameters. Comparison of data from two channels is often used to observe features or measure various environmental parameters. The three channels operating entirely within the infrared band are used to detect the heat radiation from and hence, the temperature of land, water, sea surfaces, and the clouds above them. Additional Information: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pod-guide/ncdc/docs/klm/html/c3/sec3-1.htm
            mountedOn:  #plat_960b
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                code:  NOAA-11
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/333 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument:  #inst_be0e
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            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-14
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/336 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument:  #inst_be0e
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-16
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-16 from United States. Name NOAA-16 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2000 Decommissioned Date 2014 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched September 2000. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information Source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/338 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
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        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-9
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-9 from UNITED STATES. Name NOAA-9 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08. Commissioned Date 1984-12-12 Decommissioned Date 1998-02-13 Notes Selected global operational meteorology data available from NOAA. Significant contribution to Atmospheric chemistry and Space weather. All known Instruments flying on NOAA-9 Acronym - Full name Argos - Argos Data Collection System AVHRR/2 - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer / 2 ERBE - Earth Radiation Budget Experiment HIRS/2 - High-resolution Infra Red Sounder / 2 MSU - Microwave Sounding Unit S&RSAT - Search & Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking System SBUV/2 - Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet / 2 SSU - Stratospheric Sounding Unit SEM/MEPED - SEM / Medium energy proton detector SEM/TED - SEM / Total Energy Detector Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/331 Submitted to ICES on 2018-07-17. Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08.
            instrument:  #inst_be0e