AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0, interim version 5.0, and version 5.1 global 4km sea surface temperature (SST) data for 1981-2009


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            title:  AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.0, interim version 5.0, and version 5.1 global 4km sea surface temperature (SST) data for 1981-2009
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            otherCitationDetails:  The National Oceanographic Data Center has archived Pathfinder v5.0 AVHRR SST data for 1981-2006. The collection was expanded to include interim v5.0 data for 2007-2009 (continuing). In addition, Pathfinder v5.1 data has been made available for 1981-1985. Also, Daily, Yearly, Monthly, 5, 7, and 8-day v5.0 climatologies are archived for 1985-2001 as a separate collection by the NODC.
        abstract:  The 4 km Pathfinder effort at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) is an extension of, and improvement on, the sea surface temperature (SST) fields from the NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans 9km Pathfinder dataset. In this 4 km Pathfinder project, some important shortcomings in the original 9 km data have been corrected, and the entire time series has been reprocessed at the 4 km Global Area Coverage (GAC) level, the highest resolution possible globally. Twice-daily SST and related parameters back to 1981 have been produced, as well as temporal averages for 5-day, 7-day, 8-day, monthly, and yearly periods. In addition, cloud-screened products were developed from these Pathfinder Version 5 data at the NODC, including 5-day cloud-screened full-resolution data, 5-day cloud-screened one-degree binned data, and 5-day cloud-screened gap-filled full-resolution data products. Associated climatologies and region-specific (Gulf of Mexico) GeoTIFF image products were also produced from these data. The data, derived data products, and associated metadata are archived and available at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). This metadata record describes the temporally averaged SST data and related parameters available for 1981-2009. Data and data products for all years and time periods are available as separate NCEI accessions. These data were collected through the operational periods of the NOAA-7 through NOAA-18 Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES).
        purpose:  To provide sea surface temperature data and related parameters with good temporal consistency, high accuracy and spatial resolution, and for archive and distribution through the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). This SST data collecton is intended primarily for climate related applications and studies and is being established to help form the basis for a Climate Data Record for SST.
        credit:  This project was supported in part by a grant from the NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) Program for satellites.
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            otherConstraints:  Please also cite: Casey, K.S., T.B. Brandon, P. Cornillon, and R. Evans (2010). "The Past, Present and Future of the AVHRR Pathfinder SST Program", in Oceanography from Space: Revisited, eds. V. Barale, J.F.R. Gower, and L. Alberotanza, Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-8681-5_16
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                identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                    authority:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                        date: (inapplicable)
                    code:  gov.noaa.nodc:0207879
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                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0207879
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0207879
                            description:  Documentation
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (unknown)
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                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/717 University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: http://www.rsmas.miami.edu
                            protocol:  HTTP
                            name:  Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) website
                            description:  Institution web page
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
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                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/295 US National Oceanographic Data Center
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            electronicMailAddress:  NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  US National Oceanographic Data Center website
                            description:  Institution web page
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
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                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 US DOC; NOAA; NESDIS; National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) documentDigital
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) program
        spatialRepresentationType:  (MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode) grid
        language:
          LanguageCode:  eng; USA
        characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) environment
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
        environmentDescription:  Native Dataset Environment: NCSA Hierarchical Data Format (HDF 4), Scientific Data Set (HDF-SDS) This set of NODC accessions contains yearly, daily, monthly, 8-day, 7-day, and 5-day v5.0 and 5.1 files, which follow the file naming convention described below. Each file also has an accompanying low-resolution graphic. OBSDATE.[BITCODE][RESO][AVGPERIOD][DAYNIGHT][VER]-TYPE(-BITS).hdf (for example: 1985.s04y1pfv50-bsst-16b.hdf) Where: OBSDATE = The date(s) the observations were made. OBSDATE may be in one of the following forms: - Daily Files: YYYYDDD, with: YYYY = 4 digit year of observation (1985-200x) DDD = 3 digit day of year (001-365, or 001-366 for leap years) (For help converting between calendar dates and day of year, please see our Calendar Date Conversion Chart) - 5-Day Files: SYYYYDDD-EYYYYDDD, with: SYYYYDDD = starting 4-digit year and 3-digit day EYYYYDDD = ending 4-digit year and 3-digit day - 7-Day Files: YYYYWW, with: YYYY = 4 digit year of observation WW = 2-digit week number between 01 and 52 - 8-Day Files: SYYYYDDD-EYYYYDDD, with: SYYYYDDD = starting 4-digit year and 3-digit day EYYYYDDD = ending 4-digit year and 3-digit day - Monthly Files: YYYYMM, with: YYYY = 4 digit year of observation MM = 2-digit month between 01 and 12 - Yearly Files: YYYY, with: YYYY = 4 digit year of observation BITCODE = Indicates the bit length of the pixel values in the file. s is for 16 bit files, m is for 8 bit files (see BITS below) RESO = Approximate resolution in km. Set to 04 for 4 km files AVGPERIOD = Indicates the averaging period used to create the file. AVGPERIOD may be in one of the following forms: Daily Files = d 5-Day Files = 5 7-Day Files = w 8-Day Files = 8 Monthly Files = m Yearly Files = y DAYNIGHT = Indicates nighttime, descending pass (1 or 4) or daytime, ascending pass (3 or 2) observations. VER indicates version, pfv50 or pfv51 = Shorthand for Pathfinder Version 5.0 or 5.1; pfrt denotes interim data and stands for "Pathfinder Real Time." TYPE indicates the type of data stored in the file, and may be one of the following: sst: Pathfinder all-pixel SST; bsst: first-guess SST field, either OISSTv2 for pfv50/pfrt or DOISSTv2 for pfv51; sdev: Standard deviation; num: Number of observations; qual: Overall quality value; msk1: Quality mask 1; msk2: Quality mask 2. BITS = Number of bits in each pixel; only present for 16-bit files (-16b). hdf indicates HDF-SDS Version 4 file format. Technical Prerequisites: Web browser, PC, MAC, Linux, UNIX, FTP or other download capability. Ability to work with .HDF satellite data files strongly suggested.
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -180
                eastBoundLongitude:  180
                southBoundLatitude:  -90
                northBoundLatitude:  90
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1981-08-24
                    endPosition:  2009-12-31
        supplementalInformation:  Originally, the Version 5.0 Pathfinder algorithm was used to produce these twice-daily, 5-day, 7-day, 8-day, monthly, and yearly global SST and related parameters (described below). This algorithm is an improved version of the previously most successful of many methods used to derive SST from AVHRR observations (see Barton (1995) for a review of earlier techniques), the University of Miami Pathfinder version v4.2 SST algorithm (described fully in Kilpatrick et al., 2001). The v4.2 algorithm offered marked improvement over operational retrieval algorithms such as MCSST and was applied to AVHRR data to maximize accuracy and to minimize artificial fluctuations arising from the sequence of AVHRR instruments flown on NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites during the past 2 decades. The 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder SSTs have already been shown to be the highest quality product currently available for the construction of global climatologies (Casey and Cornillon, 1999) and longer-term SST trend determination (Casey and Cornillon, 2001), and have been demonstrated to be accurate within about 0.3 degrees C under optimal conditions (Kearns et al., 2000). Relative to the older 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder data, the new, ~4 km resolution Pathfinder Version 5.0 global SSTs increase detail roughly by a factor of four simply by virtue of the increased resolution. The increase in detail over widely used but relatively coarse SST datasets such as Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (OISSTv2; Reynolds et al., 2002) and the Hadley Centre's Global Sea Ice and SST (HadISST1; Rayner et al., 2003) is far greater. In addition to the increased resolution, significant improvements have been made in the Version 5.0 which enhance the usefulness of the SST fields. Currently, these enhancements include the use of sea ice in the quality level determination scheme, inclusion of many inland water bodies, and the use of a greatly improved land mask. The greatest improvements are seen in coastal zones, marginal seas, and boundary current regions where SST gradients are often large and their impact on operational or research products is greatest. Separate SST products for daytime and nighttime AVHRR retrievals are made to better understand the differences in skin and bulk temperatures, since mean differences between AVHRR-measured skin temperatures and bulk temperatures of 0.1 to 0.2 degrees C (Schluessel et al., 1990) and locally varying differences of up to 1.8 degrees C (Minnett et al., 2000) have been observed. In addition to SST values, the Pathfinder V5.0 Project makes six other parameters available, for a total of seven per time step: 1. All-pixel SST - The all-pixel SST files contain values for each pixel location, including those contaminated with clouds or other sources of error. The Overall Quality Flag values may be used to filter out these unwanted values. The SST value in each pixel location is an average of the highest quality AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC) observations available in each roughly 4 km bin. 2. First-guess SST - The Pathfinder algorithm uses a first guess SST provided by the Reynolds Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (OISSTv2) product. The OISSTv2 is also used in the quality control procedures. For Version 5.1 data (1981-1985), the Reynolds Optimum Interpolation 1/4-degree Daily SST Analysis Version 2 (DOISSTv2) was used in place of the OISSTv2. 3. Number of observations - This parameter indicates the number of AVHRR GAC observations falling in each approximately 4 km bin. 4. Standard deviation - This is the standard deviation of the observations in each 4 km bin. 5. Overall quality flag - The overall quality flag is a relative assignment of SST quality based on a hierarchical suite of tests. The Quality Flag varies from 0 to 7, with 0 being the lowest quality and 7 the highest. For more information regarding the suite of tests, see the Kilpatrick et al. (2001) paper cited above. 6. Mask 1 - These files contain a mask code, which along with Mask 2, can be used to determine the tests in the hierarchical suite that were passed or failed, resulting in the Overall Quality Flag. 7. Mask 2 - These files contain a mask code, which along with Mask 1, can be used to determine the tests in the hierarchical suite that were passed or failed, resulting in the Overall Quality Flag. The interim SST data (2007-2009) described in this metadata record were produced prior to the derivation of a final set of monthly coefficients for those years. The SST values were therefore calculated using the most recent set of coefficients available, and are considered Interim Pathfinder Version 5.0 data and not part of the Formal Pathfinder Version 5.0 dataset. The algorithm used to create Version 5.1 data (1981-1985) is different only in that it replaces the Reynolds Weekly Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (OISSTv2) with the Reynolds Optimum Interpolation 1/4-degree Daily SST Analysis Version 2 (DOISSTv2) as the first guess SST and in the quality control procedures. The primary effect of this change is to retain more data in the high gradient regions and in regions where meandering or feature advection is present; effect on the retrieved SST is minimal.