To centralize knowledge of the ocean, NOAA, NCEI, and research scientists support the World Ocean Database (WOD), which contains records about the ocean as far back as 1772. Researchers in oceanography, meteorology, and climatology use the WOD and contribute to its ongoing development.
The goal of the WOD is to make available to anyone, without restriction, the most complete set of historical ocean profile data possible in digital form. The data, archived by NCEI, provide records of temperature, salinity, nutrients, plankton, pH, and oxygen data, as well as several other ocean variables. The WOD contains data collected by many instruments used to measure the state of the ocean such as Argo floats, gliders, expendable bathythermographs (XBTs, small probes that measure sea temperature relative to depth), and buoys.
WOD provides easy access to more than 20,000 datasets consisting of millions of uniformly formatted records, also called profiles, submitted by about 90 countries and continually updated. Each profile provides a snapshot of oceanographic conditions at one time from one location. Combined with other available profiles over discrete time periods, a view of regional and global changes in the ocean can emerge.
Researchers and the WOD
Whether studying the relationship of the ocean to Earth, conducting fisheries research, or managing marine resources, scientists and managers depend on observations of the marine environment. The WOD contributes to many types of diverse research applications, from data assimilation models to the study of foraging habits of seal lions, walruses, and seals.
Researchers also look at the role of the ocean as part of Earth’s climate system to understand climate variability and change. Using data from WOD, a clearer image can emerge of the global environment. The database can be used to determine ocean heat and salt content changes, providing historical perspective, both regionally and globally. For example, a recently published study utilizes these data to examine climate shifts in the North Atlantic.
Records of temperature and salinity are frequently used by scientists who conduct ocean studies. For example, salinity measurements can be combined with temperature data to determine seawater density, which is a primary driving force for major ocean currents.
WOD relies on data from institutional, national, and regional data centers as well as from individual scientists and scientific teams. In short, those who use the WOD also contribute to it. Oceanographers at NCEI’s Ocean Climate Laboratory quality control all WOD data.
Ocean Data Instruments
A number of instruments and techniques are used to gather data from the ocean over time.
- CTD—a rosette of instruments to measure conductivity, temperature, and depth
- Moored buoys—anchored platforms at fixed locations
- Drifting buoys—platforms subject to ocean currents
- Profiling floats—platforms drifting at predetermined subsurface water levels
- Plankton tows—nets or bottles that are cast from a ship
- Undulating oceanographic recorders—instruments towed behind vessels
- Gliders—instruments that glide while towed by unmanned underwater vehicles
- Autonomous pinniped bathythermographs—instruments attached to elephant seals
Additional historical chlorophyll, nutrient, oxygen, and plankton data could improve understanding of the complex relationship of bio-organisms to their chemical environment.
Records of Capt. Cook
The WOD contains records dating to the second of three voyages of notable British Naval explorer Capt. James Cook. Launched in 1772, the expedition led by Cook on the HMS Resolution circumnavigated the globe at an extreme southern latitude, one of the first ships to cross the Antarctic Circle in January 1773. Naturalists and botanists on his voyages made observations and discoveries. Log books of weather and other scientific information from Cook’s voyages are kept in the National Archive at Kew, England.
His charts of the southern Pacific Ocean from the 1772 trip were so accurate that they were used well into the 20th century. Cook received many accolades for his explorations during his life and posthumously, including the adoption of his ships’ names, Endeavor and Challenger, for U.S. space shuttles.