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GHRSST Long Term Stewardship and Reanalysis Facility


The Long Term Stewardship and Reanalysis Facility (LTSRF) for the Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) delivers individual and multi-sensor blended Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products with high accuracy and fine spatial resolution. NCEI maintains GHRSST’s long-term archive, shares stewardship responsibilities with the NASA JPL/Caltech Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) and the Global Data Assembly Center (GDAC), and coordinates an international effort to produce more accurate and consistent climate data record analysis products. 



Data Access Instructions



US DOC/NOAA/NESDIS > National Centers for Environmental Information (2016). Documentation for The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) data archived at NCEI (NCEI Accession 0123222). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. Accessed [date].


GHRSST Products in the long term archive

GHRSST Products

RDAC Codes and Acknowledgements

Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
Canadian Meteorological Centre, Meteorological Service of Canada, Canada
Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark
Medspiration Project, Europe
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Ocean Biology Processing Group and University of Miami, USA
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, OurOcean Project, USA
Naval Oceanographic Office, USA
NERC Earth Observation Data Acquisition and Analysis Service, United Kingdom
EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility, Europe
NOAA Office of Satellite and Product Operations, USA
Remote Sensing Systems, Inc., USA
UK Meteorological Office, United Kingdom
UK Multi-Mission Product Archive Facility, United Kingdom

Please  acknowledge GHRSST data providers when referencing products publications and media applications. Please see metadata for each product for any usage restrictions.

GHRSST Governance Documents


Donlon, C.J., M. Martin, J.D. Stark, J. Roberts-Jones and E. Fiedler (2012). The Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA). Remote Sensing of the Environment, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2010.10.017.

Embury, O. and C.J. Merchant (2012). A reprocessing for climate of sea surface temperature from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers: A new retrieval scheme. Remote Sensing of the Environment, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.11.020.

Embury, O., C.J. Merchant and M.J. Filipiak (2012) A reprocessing for climate of sea surface temperature from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers: Basis in radiative transfer. Remote Sensing of the Environment, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.10.016.

Le Borgne, P., A. Marsouin, F. Orain and H. Roquet (2012). Operational sea surface temperature bias adjustment using AATSR data. Remote Sensing of the Environment, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.02.023.


Beggs, H., A. Zhong, G. Warren, O. Alves, G. Brassington and T. Pugh (2011). RAMSSA - An operational, high-resolution, Regional Australian Multi-Sensor Sea surface temperature Analysis over the Australian region. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal, 61, 1-22.

Le Borgne, P., H. Roquet and C.J. Merchant (2011). Estimation of sea surface temperature from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra Red Imager, improved using numerical weather prediction. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 115, 55-66, doi: 10.1016/jrse201008004.


Andreu-Burillo, I.G., P. Brassington, P. Oke and H. Beggs (2010). Including a new data stream in BLUElink Ocean Data Assimilation System. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal, 59, 77-86.

Castro, S.L., G.A. Wick, P.J. Minnett, A.T. Jessup and W.J. Emery (2010). The impact of measurement uncertainty and spatial variability on the accuracy of skin and subsurface regression-based sea surface temperature algorithms. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 114, 2666-2678.

Filipiak, M.J., C.J. Merchant, H. Kettle and P. Le Borgne (2010) A statistical model for sea surface diurnal warming driven by numerical weather predictions fluxes and winds. Ocean Science Discussions, 7, 1497-1532.

Gentemann, C.L., T. Meissner and F.J. Wentz (2010). Accuracy of satellite sea surface temperatures at 7 and 11 GHz. Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 48(3), 1009-1018, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2009.2030322.

Martinez Avellaneda, N., N. Serra, P.J. Minnett and D. Stammer (2010). Response of the eastern subtropical Atlantic sea surface temperature to Saharan dust: A modeling and observational study. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, C08015, doi:10.1029/2009JC005692.

McLeod, E., R. Moffitt, R. Salm, A. Timmermann, J. Bruno, M. Palmer, E.R. Selig and K.S. Casey (2010). Vulnerability of coral reefs to warming seas and local impacts in the Coral Triangle. Coastal Management, 3(5), 518-539.

Reynolds, R.W. and D.B. Chelton (2010). Comparisons of daily sea surface temperature analyses for 2007-08. Journal of Climate, 23, 3545-3562.

Reynolds, R.W., C.L. Gentemann and G.K. Corlett (2010). Evaluation of AATSR and TMI satellite sea surface temperature data. Journal of Climate, 23, 152-165.

Selig, E.R., K.S. Casey and J.F. Bruno (2010) New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: Implications for coral reef health and management. Global Ecology and Biogeography, doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00522.

Vazquez-Cuervo, J., E.M. Armstrong, K.S. Casey et al. (2010). Comparison between the Pathfinder Versions 5.0 and 4.1 sea surface temperature datasets: A case study for high resolution. Journal of Climate, 23(5), 1047-1059.


Belkin, I.M., P.C. Cornillon and K. Sherman (2009). Fronts in large marine ecosystems. Progress in Ocean, 81(1-40), 223-236, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2009.04.015.

Blower, J.D., F. Blanc, R. Clancy, P. Cornillon, C. Donlon, P. Hacker, K. Haines, S.C. Hankin, T. Loubrieu, S. Pouliquen, M. Price, T. Pugh and A. Srinavasan (2009). Serving GODAE data and products to the ocean community. Oceanography, 22(3).

Donlon, C.J., K.S. Casey, I.S. Robinson, C.L. Gentemann, R.W. Reynolds, I. Barton, O. Arino, J. Stark, N. Rayner, P. Le Borgne, D. Poulter, J. Vazquez-Cuervo, E. Armstrong, H. Beggs, D. Llewellyn-Jones, P.J. Minnett, C.J. Merchant and R. Evans (2009). The GODAE High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project. Oceanography, 22(3), 34-45.

Gentemann, C.L., P.J. Minnett and B. Ward (2009). Profiles of Ocean Surface Heating (POSH): A new model of upper ocean diurnal warming. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C07017, doi:10.1029/2008JC004825.

Gentemann, C.L., P.J. Minnett, J. Sienkiewicz, M. DeMaria, J. Cummings, Y. Jin, J.D. Doyle, L. Gramer, C.N. Barron, K.S. Casey and C.J. Donlon (2009). MISST: The Multi-sensor Improved Sea Surface Temperature project. Oceanography, 22(2), 76-87.

Kara, A.B., C.N. Barron and T. Boyer (2009). Evaluations of sea surface temperature climatologies in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C02021, doi:10.1029/2008JC004909.

Kettle, H., C.J. Merchant, C.D. Jeffery, M.J. Filipiak and C.L. Gentemann (2009). The impact of diurnal variability in sea surface temperature on the Atlantic air-sea CO2 flux. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 529-541.

Le Traon, P.Y., G. Larnicol, S. Guinehut, S. Pouliquen, A. Bentamy, D. Rommich, C. Donlon, H. Roquet, G. Jacobs, D. Griffin, F. Bonjean, N. Hoepffner and L.A. Brevik (2009). Data assembly and processing for operational oceanography: Ten years of achievements. Oceanography, 22(3).

Legeckis, R. and P. Le Borgne: EUMETSAT geostationary satellite monitors the sea surface temperatures of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans since 2004. Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 3(49), p. 4-8.

Merchant, C.J., A.R. Harris, H. Roquet and P. Le Borgne (2009). Retrieval characteristics of non-linear sea surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L17604, doi:10.1029/2009GL039843.

Merchant, C.J., A.R. Harris, E. Maturi, O. Embury, S.N. MacCallum, J. Mittaz and C.P. Old (2009). Sea surface temperature estimation from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 12 (GOES-12). Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26(3), 570-581.

Merchant, C.J., P. Le Borgne, H. Roquet and A. Marsouin (2009). Sea surface temperature from a geostationary satellite by optimal estimation. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 113(2), 445-457, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2008.10.012.

Vincent, R.F., R.F. Mardsen, P.J. Minnett and J.R. Buckley (2009). Arctic Waters and Marginal Ice Zones: Part 2 - An investigation of Arctic atmospheric infrared absorption for AVHRR sea surface temperature estimates. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C08044, doi:10.1029/2007JC004354.


Branch, R., A.T. Jessup, P.J. Minnett and E.L. Key (2008). Comparisons of shipboard infrared sea surface skin temperature measurements from the CIRIMS and the M-AERI. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 25, 598-606, doi:10.1175/2007JTECH0480.1.

Castro, S.L., G.A. Wick, D.L. Jackson and W.J. Emery (2008). Error characterization of infrared and microwave satellite sea surface temperature products for merging and analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C03010, doi:10.1029/2006JC003829.

Gentemann, C.L., P.J. Minnett, P. Le Borgne and C. Merchant (2008). Multi-satellite measurements of large diurnal warming events. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L22602, doi:10.1029/2008GL035730.

Gentemann, C.L. and P.J. Minnett (2008). Radiometric measurements of ocean surface thermal variability. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C08017, doi:10.1029/2007JC004540.

Ineichen, P., C. Barroso, B. Geiger, R. Hollmann, A. Marsouin and R. Mueller (2008). Satellite application facilities irradiance products: Hourly time step comparison and validation. International Journal of Remote Sensingdoi:10.1080/01431160802680560.

Kara, A.B, A.J. Wallcraft, C.N. Barron, T. Oguz and K.S. Casey (2008). Climatological sea surface temperature variability in the Black Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C08013.

Kara, A.B., C.N. Barron, A.J. Wallcraft, T. Oguz and K.S. Casey (2008). Advantages of fine-resolution sea surface temperatures for small ocean basins: Evaluation in the Black Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C08013, doi:10.1029/2007JC004569.

Maturi, E., A. Harris, C. Merchant, J. Mittaz, B. Potash, W. Meng and J. Sapper (2008). NOAA's sea surface temperature products from operational geostationary satellites. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89(12), 1877-1888, doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2528.1.

Merchant, C.J., D. Llewellyn-Jones, R.W. Saunders, N.A. Rayner, E.C. Kent, C.P. Old, D. Berry, A.R. Birks, T. Blackmore, G.K. Corlett, O. Embury, V.L. Jay, J. Kennedy, C.T. Mutlow, T.J. Nightingale, A.G. OCarroll, M.J. Pritchard, J.J. Remedios and S. Tett (2008). Deriving a sea surface temperature record suitable for climate change research from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers. Adv. Sp. Res, 41(1), 1-11, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.07.041.

Merchant, C.J., M.J. Filipiak, P. Le Borgne, H. Roquet, E. Autret, J.-F. Piolle and S. Lavender (2008). Diurnal warm-layer events in the western Mediterranean and European shelf seas. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L04601, doi:10.1029/2007GL033071.

Merchant, C.J., P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin and H. Roquet (2008). Optimal estimation of sea surface temperature from split-window observations. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 112(5), 2469-2484, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2007.11.011.

Nalli, N.R., P.J. Minnett and P. van Delst (2008). Emissivity and reflection model for calculating unpolarized isotropic water surface-leaving radiance in the infrared - 1: Theoretical development and calculations. Applied Optics, 47, 3701-3721, doi:10.1364/AO.47.003701.

Nalli, N.R., P.J. Minnett, E. Maddy, W.W. McMillan, C.D. Barnet and M. Goldberg (2008). Emissivity and reflection model for calculating unpolarized isotropic water surface-leaving radiance in the infrared - 2: Field measurements. Applied Optics, 47, 4649-4671, doi:10.1364/AO.47.004649.

Roberts, M.J., J. Donners, J. Harle and D. Stevens (2008). Impact of relative atmosphere-ocean resolution on coupled climate models. CLIVAR Exchanges, 44, 2008.

Stark, J.D., C. Donlon, A. OCarroll, G. Corlett and M. Martin (2008). Determination of AATSR biases using the OSTIA sea surface temperature analysis system and a match-up database. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 25, 1208-1217.

Vincent, R.F., R.F. Mardsen, P.J. Minnett, K.A.M, Creber and J.R. Buckley (2008). Arctic waters and marginal ice zones: A composite Arctic sea surface temperature algorithm using satellite thermal data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C04021, doi:10.1029/2007JC004353.

Xie, J., J. Zhu and Y. Li (2008). Assessment and inter-comparison of five high resolution sea surface temperature products in the shelf and coastal seas around China. Continental Shelf Research, 28(10-11), 1286-1293.


Chassignet, E.P., H.E. Hurlburt, O.M. Smedstad, G.R. Halliwell, P.J. Hogan, A.J. Wallcraft, R. Baraille and R. Bleck (2007). The HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) data assimilative system. J. Mar. Sys., 65, 60-83.

Donlon, C., I. Robinson, K.S. Casey, J. Vazquez-Cuervo, E. Armstrong, O. Arino, C. Gentemann, D. May, P. Le Borgne, J. Piolle, I. Barton, H. Beggs, D.J.S. Poulter, C.J. Merchant, A. Bingham, S. Heinz, A. Harris, G. Wick, B. Emery, P. Minnett and R. Evans (2007). The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88, 1197-1213, doi:10.1175/BAMS-88-8-1197.

Jeffery, C.D., I.S. Robinson, D.K. Woolf and C.J. Donlon (2007). The response to phase-dependent wind stress and cloud fraction of the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature and air-sea CO2 exchange. Ocean Modelling, 23, 33-48, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.03.003

Kara, A.B. and C.N. Barron (2007). Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C05041, doi:10.1029/2006JC004021.

Martin, M.J., A. Hines and M.J. Bell (2007). Data assimilation in the FOAM operational short-range ocean forecasting system: A description of the scheme and its impact. Q.J.R. Meteorolog. Soc., 133, 981-995.

Reynolds, R.W., T.M. Smith, C. Liu, D.B. Chelton, K.S. Casey and M.G. Schlax (2007). Daily high-resolution blended analyses for sea surface temperature. Journal of Climate, 20, 5473-5496.


Barron, C.N. and A.B. Kara (2006). Satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L15603, doi:10.1029/2006GL026356.

Corlett, G.K., I.J. Barton, C.J. Donlon, M.C. Edwards, S.A. Good, L.A. Horrocks, D.T. Llewellyn-Jones, C.J. Merchant, P.J. Minnett, T.J. Nightingale, E.J. Noyes, A.G. OCarroll, J.J. Remedios, I.S. Robinson, R.W. Saunders and J.G. Watts: The accuracy of sea surface temperature retrievals from AATSR (2006). An initial assessment through geophysical validation against in situ radiometers, buoys and other sea surface temperature data sets, Adv. Space Res., 37(4), 764-769.

Dong, S., S.T. Gille, J. Sprintall and C. Gentemann (2006). Validation of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea surface temperature in the Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, C04002, doi:10.1029/2005JC002934.

Merchant, C.J., O. Embury, P. Le Borgne and B. Bellec: Saharan dust in night-time thermal imagery (2006). Detection and reduction of related biases in retrieved sea surface temperature. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 104, 15-30.

Merchant, C.J., L.A. Horrocks, J. Eyre and A.G. OCarroll (2006). Retrievals of sea surface temperature from infra-red imagery: Origin and form of systematic errors. Quart. J. Royal Met. Soc., 132, 1205-1223.

Noyes, E.J., P.J. Minnett, J.J. Remedios, G.K. Corlett, S.A. Good and D.T. Llewellyn-Jones (2006). The accuracy of the AATSR sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 101, 38-51.

Park, K., K. Kim, P. Cornillon and J.-Y. Chung (2006). Relationship between satellite-observed cold water along the Primorye coast and sea ice in the East Sea (the Sea of Japan). Geophysical Research Letters, 33(10), L10602, doi:10.1029/2005GL025611.

Park, K., P. Cornillon and D.L. Codiga (2006). Modification of surface winds near ocean fronts: Effects of Gulf Stream rings on scatterometer (QuikSCAT, NSCAT) wind observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, C03021, doi:10.1029/2005JC003016.

Song, Q., P. Cornillon and T. Hara (2006). Surface wind response to oceanic fronts. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1111, C12006, doi:10.1029/2006JC003680.

Ward, B. (2006). Near-surface ocean temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, doi:10.1029/2004JC002689.


Belkin, I.M. and P. Cornillon (2005). Bering Sea thermal fronts from Pathfinder data: Seasonal and Interannual variability. Pacific Oceanography, 3(1), 6-20.

Hanafin, J.A. and P.J. Minnett (2005). Infrared-emissivity measurements of a wind-roughened sea surface. Applied Optics, 44, 398-411.

Merchant, C.J., A.R. Harris, E. Maturi and S. MacCallum (2005). Probabilistic physically-based cloud screening of satellite infra-red imagery for operational sea surface temperature retrieval. Quart. J. Royal Met. Soc., 131, 2735-2755.

Nardelli, B.B., S. Marullo and R. Santoleri (2005). Diurnal variations in AVHRR sea surface temperature fields: A strategy for removing warm layer effects from daily images. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 95(1), 47-56.

Reynolds, R.W., H. Zhang, T.M. Smith, C.L. Gentemann and F.J. Wentz (2005) Impacts of in situ and additional satellite data on the accuracy of a sea surface temperature analysis for climate. International Journal of Climate, 25, 857-864.

Stuart-Menteth, A.C., I.S. Robinson, R.A. Weller and C.J. Donlon (2005). Sensitivity of the diurnal warm layer to meteorological fluctuations - Part 2: A new parameterisation for diurnal warming. Journal of Atmospheric and Ocean Science, 10, 209-234, doi:10.1080/17417530500529539


Donlon, C.J., L. Nykjaer and C.L. Gentemann (2004). Using sea surface temperature measurements from microwave and infrared satellite measurements. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25(7-8), 1331-1336.

Gentemann, C.L., F.J. Wentz, C.A. Mears and D.K. Smith (2004). In situ validation of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission microwave sea surface temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C04021.

Reynolds, R.W., C.L. Gentemann and F.J. Wentz (2004). Impact of TRMM sea surface temperatures on a climate-scale sea surface temperature analysis. Journal of Climate, 17(8), 2938-2952.


Gentemann, C.L., C.J. Donlon, A. Stuart-Menteth and F.J. Wentz (2003). Diurnal signals in satellite sea surface temperature measurements. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(3), 1140.

Stammer, D., F.J. Wentz and C.L. Gentemann (2003). Validation of microwave sea surface temperature measurements for climate purposes. Journal of Climate, 16(1), 73-87.