Skip to main content

Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology

The Northern North Pacific (NNP) is a resource-rich coastal zone with abundant fisheries and other material resources. This climatology is based on more than 100 years’ worth of observations, and it incorporates a significant amount of data not previously available to the public.

Northern North Pacific

These decadal climatologies were generated from regional data in the World Ocean Database. Input datasets are described in WOD 2013.


Data   |   Figures
Data   |   Figures


Seidov, Dan; Baranova, Olga K.; Boyer, Tim P.; Mishonov, Alexey V.; Parsons, A. Rost (2016). Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. Accessed [date].


A set of analyzed temperature and salinity fields was computed for the NNP domain to assess long-term climatological tendencies in this important region of the North Pacific Ocean. The set contains additional parameters that may be useful for applied climate studies, including:

  • Simple statistical means
  • Data distributions
  • Standard deviations
  • Standard errors of the mean
  • Observed minus analyzed
  • Seasonal minus annual distributions for both temperature and salinity

These parameters were computed using all data available in the World Ocean Database released in 2013 (WOD13).


The NNP domain is encompassed between 120.0°W and 155.0°E longitudes and between 50.0°N and 69°N latitudes.

Temporal Resolution

All data from the WOD13 for the NNP domain were used to calculate six decadal climatologies within the following time periods: 1955-1964; 1965-1974; 1975-1984; 1985-1994; 1995-2014; 2005-2012. The all averaged decades climatology was calculated by averaging six individual decades listed above (see World Ocean Database 2013 Introduction).

Each decadal climatology consists of:

Annual Fields
Computed as 12-month averages
Seasonal Fields
Winter (Jan.-Mar.), Spring (Apr.-Jun.), Summer (Jul.-Sep.), Fall (Oct.-Dec.) computed as 3-month averages
Monthly Fields

Spatial Resolution

Annual and Seasonal Fields
1°x1°, 1/4°x1/4°, and 1/10°x1/10° latitude/longitude grids
Monthly Fields
1°x1° and 1/4°x1/4° grids

Vertical Resolution

Annual and Seasonal Fields
Calculated from 0 to 5500 m depth on 102 standard levels
Monthly Fields
Calculated from 0 to 1500 m on 57 standard levels

Standard depth levels in the NWA regional climatology are the same as in the WOA13 (see Table 3 in the WOA13 documentation).


Higher spatial resolutions – here the 1/10°x1/10° grid – provide major advantages in the areas where such resolutions are feasible and supported by data availability. The quality control on a higher-resolution grid reveals more outliers than an analysis on coarser grids. More importantly, with the significantly shorter radius of influence in the objective analysis procedure, the structure of the gridded fields is far better sustained, especially in regions with sharp gradients of the essential oceanographic parameter (temperature and salinity).


Temperature units are °C. Salinity is unitless on the Practical Salinity Scale-1978.


For all three grid resolutions, mean depth values at the center of a grid square with the respective resolution were extracted from the ETOPO2 World Ocean bathymetry.


The methods for calculating mean climatological fields are described in detail in the following publications: Temperature: Locarnini et al., 2013, Salinity: Zweng et al., 2013. Additional details on high-resolution climatological calculations are found in Boyer et al., 2005. The updated table provides radii of influence for the analysis procedure as follows:

Pass1° radius of influence1/4° radius of influence1/10° radius of influence
1892 km321 km253 km
2669 km267 km198 km
3446 km214 km154 km

All procedures used for generating the NNP, (i.e. et al., 2012), Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas (Seidov et al., 2013), and Northwest Atlantic (Seidov et al., 2016) regional climatologies are similar. A pilot study using the Arctic Regional Climatology was published in a special issue of the Progress in Oceanography (Seidov et al., 2015).

Related Publications

Boyer, T., S. Levitus, H. Garcia, R.A. Locarnini, C. Stephens, J. Antonov, 2005: Objective analyses of annual, seasonal, and monthly temperature and salinity for the world ocean on a 0.25 degree grid. International Journal of Climatology, 25(7), 931-945.

Boyer, T.P., J.I. Antonov, O.K. Baranova, C. Coleman, H.E. Garcia, A. Grodsky, D.R. Johnson, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, T.D. O'Brien, C.R. Paver, J.R. Reagan, D. Seidov, I.V. Smolyar, M.M. Zweng, 2013: World Ocean Database 2013. Sydney Levitus, Ed.; Alexey Mishonov, Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 72, 209 pp. doi:10.7289/V5NZ85MT.

Boyer, T.P., O.K. Baranova, M. Biddle, D.R. Johnson, A.V. Mishonov, C. Paver, D. Seidov and M. Zweng (2015), Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5QC01J0.

Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Professional Paper 13, 173 pp., U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Rockville, MD.

Locarnini, R.A., A.V. Mishonov, J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, C.R. Paver, J.R. Reagan, D.R. Johnson, M. Hamilton, and D. Seidov, 2013: World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 1: Temperature. S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 73, 40 pp. doi:10.7289/V55X26VD.

Seidov, Dan; Baranova, Olga K.; Biddle, Mathew; Boyer, Timothy P.; Johnson, Daphne R.; Mishonov, Alexey V.; Paver, Christopher; Zweng, Melissa (2013). Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0112824). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi: 10.7289/V5GT5K30.

Seidov, D., J.I. Antonov, K.M. Arzayus, O.K. Baranova, M. Biddle, T.P. Boyer, D.R. Johnson, A.V. Mishonov, C. Paver and M.M. Zweng, 2015: Oceanography north of 60°N from World Ocean Database, Progress in Oceanography, 132, 153-173, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.02.003.

Seidov, D.; Baranova, O.K.; Johnson, D.R.; Boyer, T.P.; Mishonov, A.V.; Parsons, A.R. (2016). Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5RF5S2Q.

Zweng, M.M, J.R. Reagan, J.I. Antonov, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, D.R. Johnson, D.Seidov, M.M. Biddle, 2013: World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 2: Salinity. S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov, Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 74, 39 pp. doi:10.7289/V5251G4D.