The Northwest Atlantic (NWA) is a resource rich coastal zone with abundant fisheries and other material resources. The region includes The Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current System, key features that facilitate northward heat transport and Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. It was created as part of the NOAA-wide Sustained Marine Ecosystem in Changing Climate (SMECC) Project, and includes previously unavailable data.
Seidov, D., O.K. Baranova, D.R. Johnson, T.P. Boyer, A.V. Mishonov, and A.R. Parsons (2016). Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5RF5S2Q.
Seidov, D., O.K. Baranova, T. Boyer, S.L. Cross, A.V. Mishonov, and A.R. Parsons (2016). Northwest Atlantic Regional Ocean Climatology. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 80, Tech. Ed.: A.V. Mishonov. Silver Spring, MD, 56 pp., doi:10.7289/V5/ATLAS-NESDIS-80.
The NWA Regional Climatology was created to assess long-term climatological tendencies in this important region of the Atlantic Ocean. The set is comprised of objectively analyzed temperature and salinity fields, and additional parameters, including:
- Simple statistical means
- Data distributions
- Standard deviations
- Standard errors of the mean
- Observed minus analyzed
- Seasonal minus annual distributions for both temperature and salinity
Seasonal and annual fields are based on complete monthly analyses of all three horizontal grids (1°x1°, a 1/4°x1/4°, and 1/10°x1/10°), which are computed by averaging six decadal monthly analyses from 1955 to 2012. Seasonal fields at all depths above 1500 meters are computed from the average of the three months comprising each season (e.g., January, February and March for winter), while annual mean fields are computed by averaging the four seasonal fields at all depths. The annual analysis of measurements below 1500 meters is the mean of the four seasonal analyses, and only shows annual and seasonal fields (the monthly fields are not shown).
Using High Resolution Fields
The high-resolution monthly temperature and salinity data coverage on the 1/10°x1/10° grid have more gaps than seasonal and annual fields computed from the monthly fields. In general, all high-resolution analyzed fields should be reviewed carefully before using them in critical mission applications, particularly high-resolution monthly fields. Users should review the data distribution and statistical mean arrays before deciding whether to use the high-resolution analyzed temperature and salinity fields or their climatological means. Moreover, the monthly maps of objectively analyzed data on 1/10°x1/10° may show too strong eddy-like irregularities in some regions due to interpolation and plotting combined. Although these cases are rare, it’s important to carefully review fields with such occurrences before using analyzed variables in research or applications.
Temperature and Salinity
Temperature and salinity climatologies are calculated separately, because there are significantly more temperature data than salinity data. Because of this disparity, there are not always concurrent temperature and salinity measurements.
As a result, instabilities in the vertical density field can occur when density is calculated from standard level climatologies of temperature and salinity. Appendices A and B in (Locarnini et al., 2013) describe a method employed to stabilize the water column anywhere in the world ocean by minimally altering climatological temperature and salinity profiles. All analyses shown in the NWA regional climatology have been performed using this stabilizing method.
All data from the WOD13 for the NWA domain were used to calculate six decadal climatologies within the following time periods: 1955-1964; 1965-1974; 1975-1984; 1985-1994; 1995-2014; 2005-2012. The all averaged decades climatology was calculated by averaging six individual decades listed above (see World Ocean Database 2013).
Each decadal climatology consists of:
- Annual Fields
- Computed as 12-month averages
- Seasonal Fields
- Winter (Jan.-Mar.), Spring (Apr.-Jun.), Summer (Jul.-Sep.), Fall (Oct.-Dec.) computed as 3-month averages
- Monthly Fields
- Grids above 1500 m
- Annual, Seasonal and Monthly Fields
- 1°x1°, 1/4°x1/4°, and 1/10°x1/10° latitude/longitude grids
- Monthly Fields
- Grids above 1500 m
- Annual and Seasonal Fields
- 0 to 5500 m depth on 102 standard levels
- Monthly Fields
- 0 to 1500 m on 57 standard levels
Standard depth levels in the NWA regional climatology are the same as in the WOA13 (see Table 3 in the WOA13 documentation).
Higher spatial resolutions – here the 1/10°x1/10° grid – provide major advantages in areas where they are feasible and supported by data availability. The quality control on a higher-resolution grid reveals more outliers than an analysis on coarser grids. More importantly, with the significantly shorter radius of influence in the objective analysis procedure, the structure of the gridded fields is far better sustained, especially in regions with sharp gradients of the essential oceanographic parameter (temperature and salinity). Residual effect of quasi-stationary meanders and transient mesoscale eddies on climatological fields is clearly seen at 1/10°x1/10° resolution. They are better preserved in high-resolution climatological fields, which make them more valuable for ocean modeling and other applications.
- Unitless on the Practical Salinity Scale-1978.
For all three grid resolutions, mean depth values at the center of a grid square with the respective resolution were extracted from the ETOPO2 World Ocean bathymetry.
The methods of calculating mean climatological fields are described in Temperature: Locarnini et al., 2013, Salinity: Zweng et al., 2013. Additional details on high-resolution climatological calculations can be found in Boyer et al., 2005. The updated table from (Boyer et al., 2005), including the 1/10° grid resolution, provides radii of influence for the analysis procedure as:
|Pass||1° radius of influence||1/4° radius of influence||1/10° radius of influence|
|1||892 km||321 km||253 km|
|2||669 km||267 km||198 km|
|3||446 km||214 km||154 km|
Most of the procedures used for generating NCEI regional climatologies are similar to those used for WOA18, e.g., (Locarnini et al., 2018; Zweng et al., 2018). Several recently published studies of long-term ocean climate change are based on SWNARC (Seidov et al., 2015; Seidov et al., 2017; Seidov et al., 2018).
- 32.0°N— 5.0°N
Boyer, T., S. Levitus, H. Garcia, R.A. Locarnini, C. Stephens, and J. Antonov (2005). Objective analyses of annual, seasonal, and monthly temperature and salinity for the world ocean on a 0.25 degree grid. International Journal of Climatology, 25(7), 931-945.
Boyer, T.P., J.I. Antonov, O.K. Baranova, C. Coleman, H.E. Garcia, A. Grodsky, D.R. Johnson, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, T.D. O'Brien, C.R. Paver, J.R. Reagan, D. Seidov, I.V. Smolyar, and M.M. Zweng (2013). World Ocean Database 2013. Sydney Levitus, Ed.; Alexey Mishonov, Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 72, 209 pp. doi:10.7289/V5NZ85MT.
Boyer, T.P., O.K. Baranova, M. Biddle, D.R. Johnson, A.V. Mishonov, C. Paver, D. Seidov and M. Zweng (2015). Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5QC01J0.
Levitus, S. (1982). Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Professional Paper 13, 173 pp., U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Rockville, MD. ftp://ftp.library.noaa.gov/noaa_documents.lib/NOAA_professional_paper/NOAA_paper_13.pdf
Locarnini, R.A., A.V. Mishonov, J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, C.R. Paver, J.R. Reagan, D.R. Johnson, M. Hamilton, and D. Seidov (2013). World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 1: Temperature. S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 73, 40 pp. doi:10.7289/V55X26VD.
Seidov, D., O.K. Baranova, M. Biddle, T.P. Boyer, D.R. Johnson, A.V. Mishonov, C. Paver, Christopher, and M. Zweng (2013). Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0112824). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. doi:10.7289/V5GT5K30.
Seidov, D., J.I. Antonov, K.M. Arzayus, O.K. Baranova, M. Biddle, T.P. Boyer, D.R. Johnson, A.V. Mishonov, C. Paver and M.M. Zweng (2015). Oceanography north of 60°N from World Ocean Database, Progress in Oceanography, 132, 153-173, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.02.003.
Seidov, D., A. Mishonov, J. Reagan, O. Baranova, S. Cross, and R. Parsons (2018). Regional Climatology of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean: High-Resolution Mapping of Ocean Structure and Change. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99(10), 2129-2138, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0205.1
Seidov, D., A. Mishonov, J. Reagan, and R. Parsons (2019). Eddy-Resolving In Situ Ocean Climatologies of Temperature and Salinity in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(1), 41-58. doi:10.1029/2018JC014548
Zweng, M.M, J.R. Reagan, J.I. Antonov, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, D.R. Johnson, D.Seidov, and M.M. Biddle (2013). World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 2: Salinity. S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov, Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 74, 39 pp. doi:10.7289/V5251G4D.