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When using USCRN data in any written work, please reference:

Diamond, H. J., T. R. Karl, M. A. Palecki, C. B. Baker, J. E. Bell, R. D. Leeper, D. R. Easterling, J. H. Lawrimore, T. P. Meyers, M. R. Helfert, G. Goodge, and P. W. Thorne, : U.S. Climate Reference Network after one decade of operations: status and assessment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 94 , 489-498.
doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00170.1

If you are using the soil products, please also reference:

Bell, J. E., M. A. Palecki, C. B. Baker, W. G. Collins, J. H. Lawrimore, R. D. Leeper, M. E. Hall, J. Kochendorfer, T. P. Meyers, T. Wilson, and H. J. Diamond. : U.S. Climate Reference Network soil moisture and temperature observations. J. Hydrometeorol. , 14 , 977-988.
doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-0146.1

USCRN-Related Publications

Yu, K., & Wang, K. Diurnal to decadal variability in land surface and air temperature gradient from 2002 to 2022 over the contiguous United States. Journal of Climate, 37(4), 1155-1180;
doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-23-0143.1

Gallo K., and P. Krishnan, Evaluation of the bias in the use of clear-sky compared with all-sky observations of monthly and annual daytime Land Surface Temperature, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 1485-1490,
doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0240.1

Krishnan,P., T.P Meyers, S. J. Hook, M. Heuer, D. Senn, E. J. Dumas Intercomparison of in-situ sensors for ground-based land surface temperature measurements, Sensors , 2020, 20(18), 5268;
doi: 10.3390/s20185268

Krishnan.P, J. Kochendorfer, E. J. Dumas, P. C. Guillevic, B. B. Baker, T. P. Meyers, and B. Martos. Comparison of in-situ, aircraft, and satellite Land Surface Temperature measurements over a NOAA Climate Reference Network Site, Remote Sensing of Environment 165 (2015) 249–264,
doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2015.05.011

Bell, J. E., R. D. Leeper, M. A. Palecki, E. Coopersmith, T. Wilson, R. Bilotta, and S. Embler, . Evaluation of the 2012 drought with a newly established national soil monitoring network. Vadose Zone J., 14(11) (Cover Article).
doi: 10.2136/vzj2015.02.0023

Bilotta, R., J.E. Bell, E. Shepherd, and A. Arguez, : Calculation and evaluation of an Air-Freezing Index for the 1981-2010 climate normals period in the conterminous United States, 2015: J. Appl. Clim. Meteor. , 54 , 69-76.
doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0119.1

Chan, S. K., R. Bindlish, P. E. O'Neill, E. Njoku, T. Jackson, A. Colliander, F. Chen, M. Burgin, S. Dunbar, J. Piepmeier, S. Yueh, D. Entekhabi, M. H. Cosh, T. Caldwell, J. Walker, X. Wu, A. Berg, T. Rowlandson, A. Pacheco, H. McNairn, M. Thibeault, J. Martínez-Fernández, Á. González-Zamora, M. Seyfried, D. Bosch, P. Starks, D. Goodrich, J. Prueger, M. Palecki, E. E. Small, M. Zreda, J. Calvet, W. T. Crow, and Y. Kerr, 2016: Assessment of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 54 (8) , 4994-5007.
doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2561938

Collow, T. W., A. Robock, J. B. Basara, and B. G. Illston, : Evaluation of SMOS retrievals of soil moisture over the central United States with currently available in situ observations, J. Geophys. Res. , 117 , D09113.
doi: 10.1029/2011JD017095

Coopersmith, E. J., Cosh, M. H., Bell, J. E., & Boyles, R., : Using machine learning to produce near surface soil moisture estimates from deeper in situ records at US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) locations: Analysis and applications to AMSR-E satellite validation. Advances in Water Resources , 98 , 122-131.
doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.10.007.

Coopersmith, E.J., Cosh, M.H., Bell, J.E., & Crow, W., : Multi-profile analysis of soil moisture within the climate reference network. Vadose Zone Journal , 15(1).
doi: 10.2136/vzj2015.01.0016.

Coopersmith, E. J., Cosh, M. H., Bell, J. E., Kelly, V., Hall, M., Palecki, M. A., & Temimi, M., : Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation , 52 , 433-444.
doi: 10.1016/j.jag.2016.07.013.

Coopersmith, E. J., J. E. Bell, K. Benedict, J. Shriber, O. McCotter, and M. H. Cosh, : Relating coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) incidence to soil moisture conditions, GeoHealth , 1 , 51-63 (Cover Article).
doi: 10.1002/2016GH000033

Coopersmith, E. J., M. H. Cosh, and J. E. Bell, 2015: Extending the soil moisture data record of the Climate Reference Network (CRN) and the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN). Adv. Water Res., 79 , 80-90.
doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.02.006

Coopersmith, E. J., M. H. Cosh, R. Bindlish, and J. Bell, 2015: Comparing AMSR-E soil moisture estimates to the extended record of the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN). Adv. Water Res., 85 , 79-85.
doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.09.003

Gallo, K. P., : Evaluation of temperature differences for paired stations of the U.S. Climate Reference Network. J. Climate , 18 , 1629-1636.
doi: 10.1175/JCLI3358.1

Gallo, K., R. H., D. Tarpley, Y. Yu, : Evaluation of the relationship between air and land surface temperature under clear- and cloudy-sky conditions. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 50 , 767-775.
doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2460.1

Guillevic, P. C., J. L. Privette, B. Coudert, M. A. Palecki, J. Demarty, C. Ottle, and J. A. Augustine, : Land surface temperature product validation using NOAA's surface climate observation networks—Scaling methodology for the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Rem. Sens. Env. , 124 , 282-298.
doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2012.05.004

Hausfather, Z., K. Cowtan, M. J. Menne, and C. N. Williams Jr., 2016: Evaluating the impact of U.S. Historical Climatology Network homogenization using the U.S. Climate Reference Network. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43 , 1695-1701.
doi: 10.1002/2015GL067640

Heim, R. R., : New network to monitor climate change. EOS, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union , 82 , 143.
doi: 10.1029/EO082i012p00143

Hubbard, K. G., X. Lin, C. B. Baker, : On the USCRN temperature system. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 22 , 109-1100.
doi: 10.1175/JTECH1715.1

Leeper, R. D., Bell, J. E., Vines, C., & Palecki, M., : An Evaluation of the North American Regional Reanalysis Simulated Soil Moisture Conditions during the 2011 to 2013 Drought Period. Journal of Hydrometeorology , 18 , 515-527.
doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0132.1.

Leeper, R.D., J. Kochendorfer, : Evaporation from weighing precipitation gauges: impacts on automated gauge measurements and quality assurance methods. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques , 8 , 2291-2300.

Leeper, R.D., M.A. Palecki, and E. Davis, : Methods to calculate precipitation from weighing bucket gauges with redundant depth measurements. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology , 32 , 1179-1190.
doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00185.1

Leeper, R.D., J. Rennie, and M.A. Palecki, : Observational perspectives from U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) and Cooperative Observer Program (COOP) Network: Temperature and precipitation. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 94 , 703-721.
doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00172.1

Lin, X., K. G. Hubbard, : Sensor and electronic biases/errors in air temperature measurements in common weather station networks. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 21 , 1025-1032.
doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(2004)021<1025:SAEEIA>2.0.CO;2

Menne, M. J., C. N. Williams, Jr., and M. A. Palecki, . On the reliability of the U.S. surface temperature record. J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D11108.
doi: 10.1029/2009JD013094

Otkin, J., M. C. Anderson, J. R. Mecikalski, and G. R. Diak, : Validation of GOES-based insolation estimates using data from the U.S. Climate Reference Network. J. Hydrometeor. , 6 , 460-475.
doi: 10.1175/JHM440.1

Palecki, M. A., and P. Y. Groisman, : Observing climate at high elevations using United States Climate Reference Network approaches. J. Hydrometeor. , 12 , 1137-1143.
doi: 10.1175/2011JHM1335.1

Palecki, M. A., and J. E. Bell, : U.S. Climate Reference Network soil moisture observations with triple redundancy: measurement variability. Valdose Zone Journal , 12 , p. vzj2012.0158.
doi: 10.2136/vzj2012.0158

Rasmussen, Roy, and Coauthors, : How well are we measuring snow: The NOAA/FAA/NCAR winter precipitation test bed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 93 , 811-829.
doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00052.1

Sun, B. and T. C. Peterson, : Estimating temperature normals for USCRN stations. Int. J. Climatol. , 25 , 1809-1817.
doi: 10.1002/joc.1220

Sun, B., C. B. Baker, T. R. Karl, and M. D. Gifford, : A comparative study of ASOS and USCRN temperature measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 22 , 679-686.
doi: 10.1175/JTECH1752.1

Sun, B. and T. C. Peterson, : Estimating precipitation normals for USCRN stations, J. Geophys. Res. , 111 , D09101.
doi: 10.1029/2005JD006245

Tokay, A., P. G. Bashor, and V. L. McDowell, : Comparison of rain gauge measurements in the Mid-Atlantic region. J. Hydromet. , 11 , 553-565.
doi: 10.1175/2009JHM1137.1

Trenberth, K. E., T. R. Karl, and T. W. Spence, : The need for a systems approach to climate observations. Bull. Amer. Meteor.Soc. , 83 , 1593-1602.
doi: 10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1593

Villarini, G., Smith, A. J., Baeck, L. M., Marchok, T., and Vecchi, A. G. : Characterization of rainfall distribution and flooding associated with U.S. landfalling tropical cyclones: Analysis of Hurricanes Frances, Ivan and Jeanne (2004). J. Geophys. Res., 116, D23116.
doi: 10.1029/2011JD016175

Vose, R. S., : Reference station networks for monitoring climatic change in the conterminous United States. J. Clim. , 18 , 5390-5395.
doi: 10.1175/JCLI3600.1

Vose, R. S., D. R. Easterling, T. R. Karl, and M. Helfert, : Comments on microclimate exposures of surface-based weather stations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 86 , 504-506.
doi: 10.1175/BAMS-86-4-504

Vose, R. S., and M. J. Menne, : A method to determine station density requirements for climate observing networks. J. Clim. , 17 , 2961-2971.
doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2961:AMTDSD>2.0.CO;2

Wilson, T.B., Baker, C.B., Meyers, T.P., Kochendorfer, J., Hall, M., Bell, J.E., Diamond, H.J. and Palecki, M.A., : Site-Specific Soil Properties of the US Climate Reference Network Soil Moisture. Vadose Zone Journal , 15(11).
doi: 10.2136/vzj2016.05.0047.