/monitoring-content/sotc/global/extremes/extremes-202207.png

Temperature

NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information calculates the global temperature anomaly every month based on preliminary data generated from authoritative datasets of temperature observations from around the globe. The major dataset, NOAAGlobalTemp version 5, updated in mid-2019, uses comprehensive data collections of increased global area coverage over both land and ocean surfaces. NOAAGlobalTempv5 is a reconstructed dataset, meaning that the entire period of record is recalculated each month with new data. Based on those new calculations, the new historical data can bring about updates to previously reported values. These factors, together, mean that calculations from the past may be superseded by the most recent data and can affect the numbers reported in the monthly climate reports. The most current reconstruction analysis is always considered the most representative and precise of the climate system, and it is publicly available through Climate at a Glance.


July 2022

The July 2022 global surface temperature departure was the sixth highest for July in the 143-year record at 0.87°C (1.57°F) above the 20th century average of 15.8°C (60.4°F). The five warmest Julys on record have all occurred since 2016. July 2022 also marked the 46th consecutive July and the 451st consecutive month with temperatures, at least nominally, above the 20th century average.

/monitoring-content/sotc/global/2022/jul/global-land-ocean-anomalies-202207.png

The month of July was characterized by warmer-than-average conditions across much of North America, Asia, Europe, and South America. Record-high July temperatures were observed in parts of North and South America, southern and eastern Asia, and Europe, as well as parts of the western and southern Pacific Ocean. During the month, an unprecedented heat wave affected much of Europe and many European countries, including Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom, set new record-high July maximum temperatures. Sea surface temperatures were above average across much of the Gulf of Mexico and the northern, western, and southwestern Pacific, as well as parts of the Atlantic and eastern Indian oceans. Overall, the record-warm July temperatures encompassed over 7.3% of the world's surface — the fourth-highest percentage for record-high July temperatures.

Meanwhile, near- to cooler-than-average July temperatures were present across parts of Australia, eastern Europe, western India, central Russia, and southern South America. Consistent with La Niña, sea surface temperatures were below average over much of the south-central, central, and eastern tropical Pacific. However, there were no areas with record-cold July temperatures this month.

Regionally, July 2022 was among the top ten warmest Julys on record for several continents. North America had its second-warmest July on record at 1.41°C (2.54°F) above average. Europe had its sixth-warmest July.

  • Most of the contiguous U.S. had warmer-than-average temperatures in July, with several areas experiencing record-warm temperatures this month. July 2022 was the third-warmest July on record for the U.S.
  • Portugal had its warmest July on record, according to the Portuguese weather service. A station in Pinhão recorded a temperature of 47.0°C (116.6°F) on July 14, setting a new record for the warmest day in July for the country.
  • In the United Kingdom, 46 weather stations set new all-time maximum temperature records, according to the UK Met Office. For the first time on record, a 40°C (104°F) temperature was reported in the UK this July. It was the UK's 7th-warmest July on record.
  • Spain had its warmest July on record, as well as its warmest month on record since at least 1961. 29 major weather stations had an average July temperature that was the highest of any month since the beginning of the record in 1961.
  • France's July 2022 temperature tied with 2018 as the third-warmest July on record behind 2006 and 1983. The small French island Île d'Yeu set an all-time maximum temperature record of 35.2°C (95.4°F).
  • In the midst of a heat wave in Denmark, temperatures soared to 35.9°C (96.6°F) on July 20. According to the Danish Meteorological Institute, this marks the hottest July day ever recorded, and the second-warmest day in Danish history.

Asia had its third-warmest July on record. Much of southern and eastern Asia experienced record-warm temperatures in July 2022.

  • Numerous temperature records were broken across China this July, according to China's Meteorological Administration. On July 11, a new July record of 44.0°C (111.2°F) was set for the Yunnan province at Yanjin. In Shanghai, home to 26 million people, temperatures reached 40.9°C (105.6°F) on July 13, tying a previous record in 2017 as the hottest July temperature on record in Shanghai.
  • Hong Kong had its warmest July on record. At Sheung Shui, the hottest July day on record was exceeded three times on three consecutive days with a maximum of 39.0°C (102.2°F).

South America's July ranked fourth warmest on record. Africa tied a 2016 record for its 13th-warmest July.

  • Paraguay, in the middle of a winter heat wave, set a new July temperature maximum of 39.1°C (102.4°F) at Vallemi Airport near Concepción.
  • The Tunisian capital city, Tunis, set an all-time maximum record temperature of 48°C (118°F) on July 13.

The region of Oceania had a near-average July. It was the region's coolest July since 2012.

  • Australia had a July that was 0.6°C cooler than the 1961-1990 average for the country, according to Australia's Bureau of Meteorology. An airport station in New South Wales, Australia, set a minimum temperature record for July of -6.0°C (21.2°F).
  • New Zealand's July 2022 temperature was 1.3°C (2.3°F) above the 1981–2010 average. This was the country's fourth-warmest July since national records began in 1909.

Antarctica had an unusually warm July, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Temperatures in the Weddell Sea averaged between 3° to 7°C (5° to 13°F) higher than normal. Most of the continent and eastern coast experienced temperatures 1° to 4°C (2° to 7°F) above average, except for the northern Ross Sea which had temperatures of about 4°C (7°F) lower than average.

July Ranks and Records
July Anomaly Rank
(out of 143 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.26 ± 0.26 +2.27 ± 0.47 Warmest 2nd 2021 +1.39 +2.50
Coolest 142nd 1884 -0.73 -1.31
Ocean +0.72 ± 0.14 +1.30 ± 0.25 Warmest 7th 2019 +0.83 +1.49
Coolest 137th 1909 -0.50 -0.90
Land and Ocean +0.87 ± 0.18 +1.57 ± 0.32 Warmest 6th 2016, 2019, 2020, 2021 +0.92 +1.66
Coolest 138th 1904 -0.50 -0.90
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.31 ± 0.21 +2.36 ± 0.38 Warmest 3rd 2021 +1.55 +2.79
Coolest 141st 1884 -0.72 -1.30
Ties: 2020
Ocean +0.95 ± 0.13 +1.71 ± 0.23 Warmest 5th 2020 +1.13 +2.03
Coolest 139th 1904 -0.58 -1.04
Ties: 2015
Land and Ocean +1.09 ± 0.20 +1.96 ± 0.36 Warmest 3rd 2020 +1.20 +2.16
Coolest 141st 1904 -0.62 -1.12
Ties: 2019
Southern Hemisphere
Land +1.13 ± 0.14 +2.03 ± 0.25 Warmest 5th 2017 +1.33 +2.39
Coolest 139th 1891 -0.89 -1.60
Ocean +0.55 ± 0.15 +0.99 ± 0.27 Warmest 9th 2016 +0.70 +1.26
Coolest 135th 1909, 1911 -0.43 -0.77
Ties: 2020
Land and Ocean +0.65 ± 0.15 +1.17 ± 0.27 Warmest 8th 2016, 2019 +0.75 +1.35
Coolest 136th 1911 -0.44 -0.79

500 mb maps

In the atmosphere, 500-millibar height pressure anomalies correlate well with temperatures at the Earth's surface. The average position of the upper-level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure—depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the July 2022 map—is generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively.

/monitoring-content/sotc/global/hgtanomaly-global/hgtanomaly-global-202207.png

January–July 2022

January to July was characterized by much-warmer-than-average conditions across much of southern North America, Europe, Asia, Oceania, and central South America, and across parts of the Atlantic, Indian, and northern and western Pacific oceans. Meanwhile, near- to cooler-than-average conditions were present across parts of northern North America, north central Africa, the northern Atlantic Ocean, the central and eastern tropical Pacific and the southeastern Pacific Ocean.

/monitoring-content/sotc/global/2022/jul/global-land-ocean-anomalies-202201-202207.png

The January–July global surface temperature was 0.86°C (1.55°F) above average — the sixth-highest January–July temperature in the 143-year record. The five warmest January–July periods on record have occurred since 2015. According to NCEI's statistical analysis, the year 2022 is very likely to rank among the ten warmest years on record but only has a 10.5% chance to rank among the five warmest years on record.

Regionally, Asia had its second-warmest January–July period on record behind 2020, while Europe, the Caribbean Islands, and Oceania had a January–July temperature that ranked among the nine warmest such periods on record. Africa, South America, and North America had an above-average January–July, though it did not rank among their top ten warmest on record.

January–July Ranks and Records
January–July Anomaly Rank
(out of 143 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.36 ± 0.18 +2.45 ± 0.32 Warmest 6th 2016 +1.75 +3.15
Coolest 138th 1893 -0.78 -1.40
Ocean +0.67 ± 0.17 +1.21 ± 0.31 Warmest 6th 2016 +0.84 +1.51
Coolest 138th 1904, 1911 -0.50 -0.90
Land and Ocean +0.86 ± 0.17 +1.55 ± 0.31 Warmest 6th 2016 +1.09 +1.96
Coolest 138th 1911 -0.54 -0.97
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.54 ± 0.20 +2.77 ± 0.36 Warmest 4th 2016 +1.97 +3.55
Coolest 140th 1893 -0.87 -1.57
Ocean +0.81 ± 0.17 +1.46 ± 0.31 Warmest 5th 2020 +0.97 +1.75
Coolest 139th 1904 -0.53 -0.95
Land and Ocean +1.09 ± 0.17 +1.96 ± 0.31 Warmest 5th 2016, 2020 +1.34 +2.41
Coolest 139th 1893 -0.58 -1.04
Southern Hemisphere
Land +0.88 ± 0.14 +1.58 ± 0.25 Warmest 11th 2019 +1.29 +2.32
Coolest 133rd 1917 -0.82 -1.48
Ocean +0.57 ± 0.18 +1.03 ± 0.32 Warmest 8th 2016 +0.76 +1.37
Coolest 136th 1911 -0.50 -0.90
Land and Ocean +0.62 ± 0.17 +1.12 ± 0.31 Warmest 9th 2016 +0.83 +1.49
Coolest 135th 1911 -0.53 -0.95

Precipitation

The maps shown below represent precipitation percent of normal (left, using a base period of 1961–1990) and precipitation percentiles (right, using the period of record) based on the GHCN dataset of land surface stations.

July 2022

Precipitation anomalies during July 2022 varied significantly around the world. July precipitation was generally less than normal across the western contiguous U.S.; Mexico; western, central and southern Europe; central and southwest Asia; and southern and western Australia, as well as parts of southeastern Brazil and southern South America. Much of Argentina, central Brazil, Hawaii, and parts of southeastern China and western Russia had lower-than-average precipitation for July. Wetter-than-normal conditions were notable across parts of the eastern contiguous U.S., Alaska, northeastern South America, Iceland, Finland, western India, Pakistan, southeast Asia, New Zealand, and the eastern coast of Australia.

Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

The following analysis is based upon the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Interim Climate Data Record. It is provided courtesy of the GPCP Principal Investigator team at the University of Maryland.

In meteorological terms, July is the middle of Northern Hemisphere summer and Southern Hemisphere winter. The global precipitation pattern in Fig. 1 (top panel) contains the usual mean features pushed toward their maximum northward positions, but showing patterns of variations on top of the seasonal cycle due to inter-annual and sub-seasonal forces. The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) narrow zone of rainfall stretches across the Pacific above the Equator from east to west ending in South Asia with the largest area of rainfall on the planet. The Atlantic ITCZ is also evident in intermittent mid-latitude swaths of precipitation across the land and oceans of the Northern Hemisphere and the mostly continuous east-to-west band at about 45°S.

The patterns of the July variations are evident in the deviations from the July climatology in the middle and bottom panels of Fig. 1. The strongest feature on the dry side (negative anomaly, middle panel) is in the western Pacific, just south of the Equator, with the equatorial Pacific in general having broad negatives, with imbedded, small positive areas. To the west, over the Maritime Continent, South Asia and the North Indian Ocean positive anomalies dominate, with smaller dry anomalies imbedded. This general anomaly pattern is consistent with the July La Niña composite (Niño 3.4 Index ~ -0.8)— compare the two panels in Fig. 2. Although there is a spatial correlation between the two patterns over the tropical Asia-Pacific area, there is not strong alignment, typical of this season and this particular La Niña situation.

Although Australia tends to have generally wet conditions during La Niña (see Fig. 2, top panel), this July only the eastern part indicates that concurrence, but that monthly feature contained a 250 mm daily rainfall total in Sydney very early in the month with associated serious flood conditions there and surrounding areas. Over South Asia, the summer monsoon has been very wet in some locations including Indochina and especially western India and Pakistan with floods in northern and western India. The above normal percentage rainfall over the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula and to the east (Fig. 1) is linked to floods in Oman, Yemen, Iran and Afghanistan at various times of the month. Over Africa, the overland ITCZ had an active month with distinct positive anomalies in west, central and eastern locations with linked floods in Gambia on the west coast late in the month, and also in northern Nigeria, the Central African Republic and Sudan earlier in July.

The central and southeast portions of South America were drier than normal in July, tending to continue the long-term drought there. Parts of the normally wet northern portion of the continent were wetter than normal, including in the west, with flooding in Ecuador. The Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea were dry, with the Atlantic tropical storm season very quiet during the month, except for TS Bonnie doing an unusual short-lived crossing from the Caribbean into the Pacific at the beginning of the month. The eastern Pacific, both in the tropics and into middle latitudes, is dry, except for a couple of small features along the coast of Mexico and Central America. These are related to tropical cyclones which were active there this month, with their precipitation swaths (more than two) producing the two small features in the anomaly field relative to the climatological mean.

Over North America, areas of the east are wetter than normal, while Mexico and the western U.S. and Canada are generally dry. Looking closely one can see the dryness over the southern and central plains and to the west, with a small break in between. Although not showing up very well because of the coarse scale of the analysis, the North America monsoon was effective this month in providing reasonable moisture to the southwest U.S. and even ameliorating the ongoing drought there somewhat. The west coast continued to suffer dryness and the Yosemite fire was one result. Meanwhile the positive anomaly in the eastern U.S. was related to an active convective month with very destructive floods in eastern Kentucky and the St. Louis area, and flash flooding in other locations.

Western Europe is enduring a very hot and dry summer. As the anomaly maps show, areas from Portugal and Spain through France and Germany, and north and south to the UK and northern Italy are dry and part of a long-term drought. Record-high temperatures in many locations combined with the lack of rain has produced wildfires in Portugal, crop failures in Italy and general drought over the region. The dry anomaly feature over Europe can be traced southwestward across the Atlantic into the Gulf/Caribbean region. To the south of this lengthy dry feature there is a positive feature on the northern side of the Atlantic ITCZ and to the north there is a distinct wet feature running from the middle Atlantic states to the northeast indicating the summer storm track location. Perhaps this indicates a northward shift of all the climatological precipitation features with the hot temperatures this past month and a Mediterranean regime edging further north into Europe.

Further to the east across Scandinavia and northern Eurasia, there is an alternating positive, negative pattern of anomalies seemingly indicating a relatively stationary longwave pattern during the month. Even further north, over the Arctic Ocean, the anomalies are almost all positive. The positive sign for this particular month is consistent with the overall summer trend of precipitation in this region over the length of the GPCP record and the result of global warming and increased moisture, especially over the increasing open water in the Arctic.

Drought

Drought Information based on global drought indicators is available at the Global Drought Information System.

July 2022 was drier than normal across parts of Europe and excessively hot across all of Europe, for a second month. The combination of heat and dryness resulted in excessive evaporative stress and continued to deplete soil moisture and groundwater levels across the continent. Dryness was evident for the last 3 to 9 months across much of Europe and, for southern parts of the continent, dryness has dominated the last 5 years. The European Combined Drought Indicator showed drought stretching from Spain to southern Scandinavia and from the British Isles to Ukraine. Satellite observations of vegetative health showed stressed vegetation across western and southern parts of the continent.

In France, the unprecedented drought has caused serious damage to agriculture and prompted 93 of the nation's 96 metropolitan departments to go on alert, with restrictions across much of the country. The drought has lowered water levels on the Rhine River to the point where the river may effectively close, disrupting trade across the continent. The heat and drought have put Spain's olive crop in jeopardy. Romanians were suffering water rationing and failed crops from drought which began in the winter of 2021-22. The heat wave caused over 1000 deaths in Spain and Portugal. In Italy, at least one-third of the country's agricultural production was at risk, and a state of emergency was declared in several northern regions where the Po River has dried up.

July was drier than normal in Southwest Asia and parts of western, far eastern, and far southern Asia. Dry conditions have plagued Southwest Asia for much of the last 3 years. Parts of central, northern, and southeast Asia had dry conditions for the last 2 to 9 months. Eastern to southern parts of the continent were warmer than normal in July, and evapotranspiration has been above normal in central and far eastern areas for the last 1 to 3 months. Groundwater and soil moisture levels were low in Southwest Asia and in northern, central, and southern parts of the continent. Satellite observations of vegetative health revealed poor vegetation in the southwest, central, and some far eastern areas. According to media reports, a severe drought in northwest Cambodia has destroyed at least 10,000 hectares (24,700 acres) of rice and farmers were calling on the government to provide irrigation and other assistance.

Northern, eastern, and southern parts of Africa were drier than normal in July, while other parts were wetter than normal. But dry conditions for the last 2 months to 2 years have depleted groundwater and soil moisture, and continued warmer-than-normal temperatures have increased evaporation, in the northern and especially eastern areas where satellite observations indicated vegetation was in poor health. According to media reports, rain has not fallen in 3 years in northern Kenya, leaving villagers with only bitter wild berries to eat. More than 200 people in northeast Uganda starved to death in July as prolonged drought and other factors left more than half a million people hungry.

Western and southeastern portions of Australia were drier than normal in July while northern and eastern areas saw wetter-than-normal conditions. Temperatures were warmer than normal in the southwest but cooler than normal to the north and east. At longer time scales, especially the last 6 to 12 months, dry conditions were evident in the north, where low groundwater and soil moisture were detected by satellite (GRACE). Stressed vegetation was detected in southern to northern areas. The observations of dry soils, as well as low stream levels, in the north and southwest were confirmed by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Combined Drought Indicator analyses.

Central parts of South America were drier than normal during July while almost the entire continent was warmer than normal. Much of South America, from southern Peru and eastern and southern Brazil to Argentina, was dry at the 3- to 6-month time scales, with some parts of this region dry at multi-year time scales. Evaporative stress was especially high for the last 1 to 3 months from southern Peru and central Brazil to northern Argentina, where satellite observations indicated vegetation in poor condition. Satellite observations also indicated low groundwater and soil moisture across much of Brazil to Argentina. Drought in southern and eastern Brazil was confirmed on the Northeast Brazil Drought Monitor.

In North America, July was warmer than normal from central Mexico to eastern Alaska, with near to cooler-than-normal conditions around the Great Lakes to Hudson Bay areas. The month was drier than normal across much of western to central Canada, parts of the western U.S., and from central Mexico to the southern and central Plains in the U.S. Parts of these areas were dry at longer time scales, from the last 2 to 24 months, especially across the western U.S., central Mexico to the central Plains, and across the southern Canadian Prairies. The unusually warm temperatures increased evaporative stress across much of the continent, with satellite observations indicating poor vegetative health from central Mexico to the southern and central Plains as well as across much of the U.S. West. Satellite observations also indicated low groundwater and soil moisture from central Mexico to the southern and western U.S., parts of western and central Canada, the U.S. Northeast, and parts of Alaska. The North American Drought Monitor product depicted drought from central Mexico to much of the U.S. from the West Coast to the Mississippi River, and into the southern Canadian Prairies, as well as across parts of northwestern Canada. According to media reports, drought has nearly emptied La Boca reservoir in northern Mexico, threatening livelihoods.


References

  • Menne, M. J., C. N. Williams, B.E. Gleason, J. J Rennie, and J. H. Lawrimore, 2018: The Global Historical Climatology Network Monthly Temperature Dataset, Version 4. J. Climate, in press. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0094.1.
  • Huang, B., Peter W. Thorne, et. al, 2017: Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 5 (ERSSTv5), Upgrades, validations, and intercomparisons. J. Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0836.1
  • Peterson, T.C. and R.S. Vose, 1997: An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network Database. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 2837-2849.
  • Huang, B., V.F. Banzon, E. Freeman, J. Lawrimore, W. Liu, T.C. Peterson, T.M. Smith, P.W. Thorne, S.D. Woodruff, and H-M. Zhang, 2016: Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature Version 4 (ERSST.v4). Part I: Upgrades and Intercomparisons. J. Climate, 28, 911-930.
  • Adler, R., G. Gu, M. Sapiano, J. Wang, G. Huffman 2017. Global Precipitation: Means, Variations and Trends During the Satellite Era (1979-2014). Surveys in Geophysics 38: 679-699, doi:10.1007/s10712-017-9416-4
  • Adler, R., M. Sapiano, G. Huffman, J. Wang, G. Gu, D. Bolvin, L. Chiu, U. Schneider, A. Becker, E. Nelkin, P. Xie, R. Ferraro, D. Shin, 2018. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Analysis (New Version 2.3) and a Review of 2017 Global Precipitation. Atmosphere. 9(4), 138; doi:10.3390/atmos9040138

Citing This Report

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Monthly Global Climate Report for July 2022, published online August 2022, retrieved on October 4, 2022 from https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/monitoring/monthly-report/global/202207.

Metadata

https://data.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/iso?id=gov.noaa.ncdc:C00672