June 2023 Selected Climate Anomalies and Events Map


Coinciding with the release of the January 2023 Global Climate Report, the NOAA Global Surface Temperature (NOAAGlobalTemp) dataset version 5.1.0 replaced version 5.0.0. This new version includes complete global coverage and an extension of the data record back in time an additional 30 years to January 1850. While anomalies and ranks might differ slightly from what was reported previously, the main conclusions regarding global climate change are very similar to the previous version. Please see our Commonly Asked Questions Document and web story for additional information.

NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information calculates the global temperature anomaly every month based on preliminary data generated from authoritative datasets of temperature observations from around the globe. The major dataset, NOAAGlobalTemp version 5.1.0, updated in 2023, uses comprehensive data collections of increased global area coverage over both land and ocean surfaces. NOAAGlobalTempv5.1.0 is a reconstructed dataset, meaning that the entire period of record is recalculated each month with new data. Based on those new calculations, the new historical data can bring about updates to previously reported values. These factors, together, mean that calculations from the past may be superseded by the most recent data and can affect the numbers reported in the monthly climate reports. The most current reconstruction analysis is always considered the most representative and precise of the climate system, and it is publicly available through Climate at a Glance.

June 2023

June 2023 set a record as the warmest June for the globe in NOAA's 174-year record. The June global surface temperature was 1.05°C (1.89°F) above the 20th-century average of 15.5°C (59.9°F). This marked the first time a June temperature exceeded 1°C above the long-term average. The Junes of 2015–2023 rank among the ten warmest Junes on record. June 2023 marked the 47th consecutive June and the 532nd consecutive month with global temperatures, at least nominally, above the 20th-century average.

Global ocean surface temperature hit a record high for June, which marks the third-consecutive month where ocean surface temperatures broke a record. Weak El Niño conditions that emerged in May strengthened, as above-average sea surface temperatures returned to the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Globally, June 2023 set a record for the highest monthly sea surface temperature anomaly of any month in NOAA's 174-year record. June heat was not limited to the ocean surface; the Southern Hemisphere had its warmest June on record and the Northern Hemisphere tied 2019 for its warmest June.

Temperatures were above average throughout most of South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. Parts of northern and southern North America, Oceania, Antarctica and the Arctic also experienced warmer-than-average temperatures this month. Sea surface temperatures were above average across much of the northern, central and western Pacific, the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. Parts of the eastern Atlantic, the southwestern Pacific, the southern Indian Ocean, as well as parts of northern Canada, Mexico, western Europe, and southern Africa saw record-warm June temperatures. Combined, record-warm temperatures covered just over 8.6% of the world's surface this month — the highest June percentage on record.

Temperatures were near to cooler than average across parts of the U.S., Greenland, western Russia, Pakistan and northern India, western Australia and Chad and northeastern Nigeria. Sea surface temperatures were near to below average over parts of the central-eastern and southeastern Pacific and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Less than 1% of the world's surface had a record-cold June.

A smoothed map of blended land and sea surface temperature anomalies is also available.

The Caribbean Islands region had its warmest June on record. June 2023 surface temperature in the Caribbean region was 1.31°C (2.36°F), smashing the previous record set in June 2010 by +0.15°C (+0.27°F).

Africa had its third-warmest June on record (tied with 2017), while South America, Europe, and Asia (tied with 2010) each had their fourth-warmest June.

  • With an average temperature 2.5°C above average, the United Kingdom had its warmest June since records began in 1884.
  • Portugal had its fifth-warmest June on record.
  • The Netherlands recorded its warmest June on record.
  • June 2023 in Norway ranked fourth warmest on record.
  • June in Hong Kong ranked fourth warmest on record.
  • In Uruguay, average temperatures ranged from 0.4°C to 2.0°C above normal for the month.

Oceania recorded its sixth-warmest June on record, and North America had its seventh-warmest.

  • The contiguous U.S. had a near-average June.
  • At 1.4°C above the long-term average, New Zealand recorded its fifth-warmest June on record.
  • June in Australia was 1.12°C above average, making it the seventh-warmest June on record.
June Ranks and Records
(out of 174 years)
Coolest174th1909, 1911-0.46-0.83
Land and Ocean+1.05+1.89Warmest1st2023+1.05+1.89
Northern Hemisphere
Ties: 2020
Land and Ocean+1.21+2.18Warmest1st2019, 2023+1.21+2.18
Coolest174th1909, 1913-0.54-0.97
Ties: 2019
Southern Hemisphere
Land and Ocean+0.89+1.60Warmest1st2023+0.89+1.60
Land and Ocean+0.49+0.88Warmest13th1987+1.26+2.27
Land and Ocean+1.36+2.45Warmest9th2019+1.95+3.51

500 mb maps

In the atmosphere, 500-millibar height pressure anomalies correlate well with temperatures at the Earth's surface. The average position of the upper-level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure—depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the map—is generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively.


Year-to-date Temperature: January–June 2023

The January–June global surface temperature ranked third warmest in the 174-year record at 1.01°C (1.82°F) above the 1901–2000 average of 13.5°C (56.3°F). Global ocean surface temperature during this January–June period ranked second warmest on record. According to NCEI's statistical analysis, the year 2023 is very likely to rank among the 10 warmest years on record.

January to June was characterized by warmer-than-average conditions across much of eastern, southern, and northern North America, South America, Europe, Africa, the Arctic, northern and southern Oceania, and Asia with the exception of a small pocket of cooler conditions near India and Pakistan. Sea surface temperatures were above-average throughout most of the northern, western, southwestern, and subtropical eastern Pacific, central and southern Atlantic, and Indian oceans.

Temperatures were near or below average across parts of western North America and western Alaska, India and Pakistan, Greenland, Australia, and Antarctica. Sea surface temperatures were near to below average across parts of the southeastern and central-east Pacific and northern Atlantic oceans.

A smoothed map of blended land and sea surface temperature anomalies is also available.

Europe had its third-warmest year-to-date period, and Africa had its fourth-warmest. South America had its sixth-warmest January–June period, while North America and Asia had their eighth- and ninth-warmest such period, respectively. Oceania had a warmer-than-average year-to-date period, but it did not rank among the 20 warmest on record. The Caribbean Islands tied 2010 for their third-warmest January–June period, and the Gulf of Mexico had its warmest such period on record. Overall, the Northern Hemisphere had its third-warmest year-to-date, while the Southern Hemisphere tied 2020 for its second-warmest such period.

January–June Ranks and Records
(out of 174 years)
Ties: 2019
Land and Ocean+1.01+1.82Warmest3rd2016+1.14+2.05
Northern Hemisphere
Land and Ocean+1.28+2.30Warmest3rd2016+1.51+2.72
Southern Hemisphere
Land and Ocean+0.74+1.33Warmest2nd2016+0.77+1.39
Ties: 2020
Land and Ocean+0.16+0.29Warmest45th2007+0.74+1.33
Land and Ocean+2.18+3.92Warmest7th2016+3.43+6.17


The maps shown below represent precipitation percent of normal (left, using a base period of 1961–1990) and precipitation percentiles (right, using the period of record) based on the GHCN dataset of land surface stations.

June 2023

Below-average June precipitation was observed across parts of western and southern North America, southern South America, northern Europe, northern China and the eastern and western coasts of Australia. Wetter-than-average conditions were present across parts of the eastern U.S., southwestern Europe, Turkey, equatorial western Africa, Pakistan and southeastern Australia.

Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

The following analysis is based upon the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Interim Climate Data Record. It is provided courtesy of the GPCP Principal Investigator team at the University of Maryland.

June Highlights:
  • June 2023 was the warmest June on record for the globe, and almost the wettest June for the globe too.
  • El Niño is affecting tropical rainfall anomaly patterns, but only weakly.
  • Dryness in Canada helped produce wildfires affecting air quality there and in the U.S.
  • Dry North Atlantic extends into northern Europe.

The precipitation patterns for this June (Fig. 1, top panel) show the typical seasonal shift northward, especially drying out Australia and dampening South Asia with the Asian Monsoon, with similar latitude shifts over the other continents and across the oceans. The month was also the first real month of Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season, and this was the case in all three major basins in the Northern Hemisphere. On the temperature side of things, this June had the highest global surface temperature of any June (since 1850), partially due to the developing El Niño on an inter-annual scale, in addition to global warming on the longer time scale. The global precipitation number is much more highly variable than the global surface temperature, but has a weak positive trend increasing at an overall rate of about 1.5%/K over the last 40 years, similar to what is evident from climate models (see Gu and Adler, 2022). For this June, the GPCP total of 2.78 mm/d is second only to June of 2002 with 2.79 mm/d fitting in general into that positive trend, although the precipitation variations may lag the temperature. The El Niño conditions strengthened slightly in June with the Niño 3.4 SST anomaly in the central Pacific having a mean of +0.8 for the month.

The anomaly patterns in Fig. 1 (middle and bottom panels) emphasize the variable nature of ITCZ across the tropics, with above average rainfall over the ocean in the Atlantic, Eastern Pacific, Western Pacific and Indian Oceans. The usually rainy northern South America had a negative deficit this June, whereas tropical Africa had excess rainfall. These ITCZ anomaly features reflect the weak El Niño, but only to a certain degree. Fig. 2 (below) shows the June El Niño composite and a repeat of the anomaly chart. And, while in the composite you can see a positive anomaly in the ITCZ across the entire Pacific, in this June's field the positive anomalies are more scattered and variable. Over the Maritime Continent, where El Niños typically bring dry conditions, there were again variable positive and negative features, although the negative (dry) features seemed to dominate. The negative feature over northern South America in the composite was replicated well in the current June. Overall, the pattern correlation between the June El Niño composite anomaly and this June's specific anomaly field (40°N–40°S) was still only +0.19, up slightly from last month's +0.13, perhaps indicating a slowly strengthening El Niño.

The Asian monsoon had a variable start across South Asia. A heat wave and dry conditions during the month killed 100 people, with the rainfall deficit feature covering much of eastern India. Just to the west a swath of positive anomaly is associated mainly with Tropical Cyclone Biparjoy, which moved northward in the Arabian Sea and came ashore at the Pakistan–India border, providing an early start to the monsoon. Early in the month, tropical cyclones tracked northward eastward of the Philippines and Taiwan and one of them (Mawar) grazed Japan, but produced heavy rain (490 mm in 24 hrs) and flooding in the Tokyo area.

The springtime Meiyu front was also active this month with positive anomalies over eastern China and through Japan. At the other end of the Asian monsoon, Australia, which typically has drought conditions during El Niño, had a swath of positive rain anomalies across its midsection related more to mid-latitude fronts. The positive anomalies across Africa's central zone were associated with floods in Ghana, Ivory Coast and Ethiopia. Near the end of the month, Chile experienced heavy rain and floods with multiple events following each other in what appears to be an Atmospheric River (AR) type of situation, which shows up in the precipitation anomaly field for the month with the NW-SE positive feature just west of Chile. The tail (or west) end of an oceanic feature off the east coast of the continent was associated with floods in far southern Brazil.

As mentioned before, the entire planet had its warmest June and that certainly included the oceans, especially with El Niño underway. The northward half of the North Atlantic was noted as especially warm and is noted in our precipitation fields as dry (below normal precipitation). This dryness continued eastward across middle and northern Europe and into central Asia. Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, however, had positive anomalies and some occurrences of floods, for example in Kosovo and Romania.

Over North America, a mottled pattern of anomalies had parts of the western U.S. with positive anomalies, but most of the southwest and Mexico and central America under drought conditions. Much of Canada and the eastern U.S. were dry, with the conditions in Canada producing many wildfires both in the west and the east resulting in copious smoke which affected air quality both in Canada and in much of the eastern U.S.

In the Atlantic, a brief Tropical Storm Arlene in the Gulf of Mexico and Tropical Storm Bret across the Atlantic into the Caribbean began the Atlantic storm season and contributed to the positive rainfall anomalies seen in the tropical North Atlantic.

Drought in June 2023

Drought information is based on global drought indicators available at the Global Drought Information System website, and media reports summarized by the National Drought Mitigation Center.

June Highlights:
  • Beneficial precipitation fell across Mediterranean coastal areas and parts of the Americas and eastern Asia during June 2023, but many drought-plagued areas across Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas were drier than normal, and the precipitation that fell was not enough in many cases to make up deficits that have accumulated over several months.
  • Parts of all of the continents had unusually warm temperatures, which contributed to a record-warm June for the world.
  • The high temperatures also increased evapotranspiration, which exacerbated the drought conditions, especially in the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
  • A significant portion of the world's agricultural lands was still suffering from low soil moisture and groundwater levels.
  • The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor indicated that agriculture was most threatened in parts of the Americas, Africa, and Asia, and in southwest and eastern parts of Europe and eastern Australia.
  • The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWSNet) revealed significant food insecurity in parts of Central and South America, Africa, and Southwest Asia.

In Europe, Scandinavian coastal and Mediterranean coastal areas were wetter than normal for a second consecutive month during June 2023, but much of Europe in between these northern and southern ends continued drier than normal. Unusually hot temperatures continent-wide gave Europe the fourth warmest June in the 1910-2023 NCEI record. The excessive heat enhanced evapotranspiration and exacerbated drought conditions where it was dry. Dryness was evident on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) maps across the Iberian Peninsula and interior portions of Europe at the 2- to 3-month time scales. Wet conditions during the winter alleviated dryness across interior regions at the 6-month time scale, except for western portions of Mediterranean Europe. But dry conditions afflicted most of Europe at longer time scales (the last 12 to 48 months), especially as seen on the SPEI maps. The dry conditions were accompanied by excessive heat, with Europe experiencing the second warmest July-June 12-month period in 2022-2023. Soils continued dry from Portugal to northern Europe, while the satellite-based (GRACE) indicator of groundwater revealed low groundwater across most of Europe. Satellite observations of vegetative health (Vegetative Health Index, VHI) revealed poor vegetative health over parts of the Iberian Peninsula and from France northward and eastward. The European Combined Drought Indicator showed some level of drought across most of Europe, except for the Mediterranean coastal and southeastern areas, with 53.3% of the EU-27 territory in Drought Watch, Warning, or Alert conditions.

According to media reports (Daijiworld), the Danish Emergency Management Agency issued alerts about the increased risk of wildfires associated with the recent dry weather. The Associated Press noted that Europe's Nordic and Baltic countries have experienced below-normal rainfall and rising temperatures, which have led to forest fire warnings. Small wildfires were already burning in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. EuroNews reported that parts of southern France are restricting water as 10% of Europe faces a crisis situation due to drought. The mayor of the French Riviera town of Grasse announced that he will be increasing water rates in the summer, in a bid to encourage everyone to save water during the summer as the country faces more drought warnings. The summer heatwaves and drought are raising concern among Swedish farmers. Water levels on England's River Granta have been low like at the end of last summer. Reuters noted that low water levels after dry weather are preventing cargo vessels from sailing fully loaded on the Rhine River in Germany, meaning surcharges are added to the usual freight rates. The Scottish Environmental Protection Agency has warned Scotland to "brace itself" for "significant water scarcity". In a report published in mid-June, the environmental body raised the level of alert further in many areas of the country. The EU Science Hub reported that severe drought has been affecting the western Mediterranean, reducing soil moisture and river flows, and stunting plants and crops during their crucial growing season. Reuters added that drought has dried up Spain's Fuente de Piedra wetlands, forcing flamingos to hatch their chicks elsewhere. As reported by Realnoe Vremya, a state of emergency can be declared in Tatarstan because of drought. Minister of Agriculture and Food of the republic, Marat Zyabbarov, said this claiming that there was 15 mm of precipitation on average in June whereas the standard is 60 mm. Tatarstan is a republic of the Russian Federation located in Eastern Europe.

In Asia, June was drier than normal in central Asia, western and eastern parts of Russia, and areas in Southwest and Southeast Asia. Monthly temperatures were much warmer than normal across southern and eastern parts of the continent. June 2023 tied with June 2010 as the fourth warmest June, continent-wide, in the 114-year NCEI record. The SPI revealed dryness at 2- to 36-month time scales in parts of Southeast Asia, Southwest Asia, and western Russia, and at longer time scales in Southwest Asia. Asia had the fourth warmest July-June 12-month time period, according to NCEI records. The SPEI reflected the increased evapotranspiration due to the unusual warmth by indicating more widespread and severe dryness in these areas, as well as the Arctic coast of Siberia, at the 2- to 36-month time scales. Satellite-based (GRACE) indicators of soil moisture and groundwater reveal widespread dry conditions in these areas as well as northeast China and northern India. Satellite observations of vegetative health (VHI) revealed poor vegetative health from Southwest Asia into southwestern Russia, across parts of South and Southeast Asia, over northeast China, and parts of eastern Siberia. Drought conditions were confirmed over northern parts of India on the India Drought Monitor. Some short- or long-term drought was indicated on some of the islands in the Southwest Pacific on the NIWA Island Climate Update maps. According to media reports (Reuters), drought is driving an economic exodus from Iraq's rivers and marshlands; across the country, fishermen, farmers and boat-builders, among others, are giving up on lives that depend on water and are seeking jobs in urban areas. Al Jazeera added that thousands of dead fish have washed ashore in southeast Iraq, prompting an official investigation into the wildlife disaster that officials say may be linked to drought conditions. Turkey's Daily Sabah media reported that water levels in three major dams supplying Istanbul have declined to critical lows, alarming the megacity ahead of the long summer, while experts again point to climate change and reduced rainfall as leading contributors to the shortage. Vietnam is facing a power crisis due to a prolonged drought and extreme heat. The drought has caused water levels in hydroelectric dams to drop, reducing power generation. The heat has also increased the electricity demand, further straining the grid.

Beneficial precipitation fell across the Mediterranean coast (the Maghreb region) of Africa during June, as well as western, central, and southern parts of the continent, while much of the equatorial coastal regions and much of the Horn of Africa were drier than normal. Much of the continent was warmer than normal, with June 2023 tying with June 2017 as the third-warmest June continent-wide. Rainfall in recent months improved the SPI values in parts of the Horn of Africa at 2- to 6-month time scales, but evapotranspiration that was enhanced by above-normal temperatures showed more intense drought on the SPEI maps. The last 12 months ranked as the sixth warmest July-June period on record. The recent rainfall in the north (Maghreb region and west coast) was not enough to overcome longer-term dryness, with drought evident on the 3- to 36-month SPI and SPEI maps. These maps also show intense drought at these time scales over central to southern parts of the continent. The SPEI maps show widespread severe drought over the Horn of Africa at 6- to 48-month time scales. Satellite (GRACE) observations revealed persistent low soil moisture and groundwater in the Maghreb and adjacent northern regions, over parts of the Horn of Africa, and parts of central to southern Africa. Satellite observations of vegetative health (VHI) revealed poor vegetative health over the Maghreb region and parts of the Horn of Africa and southern and western Africa. An analysis by the African Flood and Drought Monitor estimated 14% of the continent in drought at the end of June.

Most of Australia was drier than normal during June 2023, with temperatures cooler than normal in the west but warmer than normal elsewhere. This coincided with the development of El Niño. The SPI revealed parts of western, southern, and eastern Australia to be drier than normal at 2- to 6-month time scales, with the west coast dry at longer time scales. Dry areas were evident along the west coast, east coast, and in the southwest, as seen in GRACE groundwater and soil moisture data, satellite-based vegetative health, and in the Australian Combined Drought Indicator analyses.

In South America, much of Chile and Argentina, and parts of Brazil and the northern coast of South America, were drier than normal in June, with above-normal precipitation over parts Uruguay to the northern Andes. Temperatures were above normal across most of the continent, with June 2023 ranking as the fourth-warmest June, continent-wide, in the 1910–2023 NCEI record. The SPI revealed drought extending across most of southern South America and extending into parts of Brazil and Venezuela at the 2- to 3-month time scales, and covering a larger area (including Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru) at longer time scales out to 72 months. The last 2 months ranked as the second warmest May–June and the last 12 months ranked as the eleventh warmest July–June period. Increased evapotranspiration from the unusual warmth resulted in more extensive and intense drought, as seen in the SPEI. Satellite (GRACE) observations revealed extensive areas of low groundwater and soil moisture from Venezuela to Brazil and southern Peru to the southern tip of the continent. Satellite analysis revealed poor vegetative health from Peru to Brazil and Argentina. Drought was confirmed in Brazil, especially southern and western regions, on the Brazilian Drought Monitor, in Bolivia on the Bolivian Drought Monitor, in Chile and Argentina on Southern South America Drought Information System and Chilean Combined Drought Index maps, and in western South America countries on the Western South America Regional Drought Monitor.

In North America, the SPI indicated that June and the last 2 to 3 months were drier than normal across much of Canada; the Great Lakes, Ohio Valley, and northwestern parts of the U.S.; much of Mexico and Central America; and parts of the Caribbean. Anomalous ridges in the atmospheric circulation pattern resulted in much above-normal temperatures across most of Canada, Mexico, and Central America to the Caribbean that increased evapotranspiration and exacerbated drought conditions. According to NCEI records, North America experienced the seventh-warmest June, continent-wide, in the 1910-2023 record, while the Caribbean region had the warmest June on record. The last 2 months were the warmest May-June for North America and the Caribbean. The SPI indicated persistent dryness across Canada, especially the western provinces and some eastern provinces, for the last 1 to 24 months, and in southern portions (especially the southern Prairies) at 36- to 72-month time scales. In the U.S., the Midwest and Northeast were persistently dry for the last 1 to 3 months, parts of the Great Plains were dry at 1- to 48-month time scales, and dryness was still evident in parts of the West at 36- to 72-month time scales after a wet winter and early spring. The SPI showed dryness across southern Mexico, the Central American countries, and much of the Caribbean at 1- to 72-month time scales, and in northwest Mexico at 6 to 72 months. When temperature (evapotranspiration) is considered, the SPEI shows much more extensive and severe dryness in these areas at these time scales. Satellite (GRACE) observations revealed extensive areas of low groundwater and soil moisture across western, southern, and eastern Canada; most of Mexico; and the Central American and some Caribbean countries. In the U.S., soil moisture was low in the northwest, central to northern Plains, and parts of the Midwest and Southwest, while groundwater was low in interior West to southern Plains areas as well as parts of the Midwest. Satellite analysis indicated poor vegetative health across Central America and Mexico to the southwestern U.S., in the Midwest U.S. to eastern Canada, and across much of western Canada. Hundreds of large wildfires continued to burn across western and eastern parts of Canada during June, with the smoke creating health problems for citizens in Canada and downwind parts of the U.S.

The North American Drought Monitor product depicted drought across much of western to central Canada and the Maritime provinces; the central U.S. to Great Lakes, Pacific Northwest, southern Plains, and Mid-Atlantic to Northeast; and much of Mexico. The Caribbean Regional Climate Center SPI maps showed dryness across Caribbean islands at 1- to 24-month time scales. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) statistics indicated that 42% of the nation's topsoil moisture, and 48% of the subsoil moisture, was short or very short (dry or very dry) at the end of June, and 29% of the nation's winter wheat crop, 15% of the corn crop, 15% of the soybean crop, 12% of the spring wheat crop, and 25% of the nation's pasture and rangeland were in poor to very poor condition. According to media reports (multiple sources), drought continues to cause issues for ships transiting the Panama Canal as Lake Gatun, which provides water for the canal, dries up quickly; further draft restrictions are expected, especially with El Niño on the horizon. The Panama Canal region is enduring its worst drought since 1950. Reuters noted that Honduran authorities in June said they would begin rationing electricity due to the impact of a drought that has hit output from hydroelectric dams in the Central American country. TeleSUR English added, Honduras' Secretariat for Risk and Contingency Management (Copeco) in June declared a red alert in 140 municipalities in the country due to drought caused by the El Niño weather phenomenon. "What we are trying to do is take preventive actions to take the necessary measures to address the problem of food shortages," Juan José Reyes, head of Copeco's Early Warning Department, said at a press conference. The CBC reported that, in Canada, the British Columbia government is urging people to save water. From Jan. 1 to June 11, 2023, Mexico recorded 20.1% less rainfall than during the same period of 2022, decreasing the amount of water stored in the country's reservoirs, per the National Water Commission. Reuters noted that Mexican sugar production fell 15% in the current season, which is ending early due to a drought that has sapped crops and impacted yields.

Ocean Heat Content

Ocean Heat Content (OHC) is essential for understanding and modeling global climate since > 90% of excess heat in the Earth's system is absorbed by the ocean. Further, expansion due to increased ocean heat contributes to sea level rise. Change in OHC is calculated from the difference of observed temperature profiles from the long-term mean.

April–June 2023 Ocean Heat Content (1022 joules)
Basin0-700 meters | Rank (1955-2023)
Entire BasinNorthern HemisphereSouthern Hemisphere
Source: Basin time series of heat content
April–June 2023 Heat Content 0-700 m
Heat Content 0-700 m

Global OHC for April–June 2023 is the highest April–June OHC in our records, which extend back to 1955. Overall, the latest quarterly OHC reveals widespread warmer than normal conditions relative to the 1955–2006 mean, a situation observed since the end of 2016. A notable difference from the previous quarter is the rapid westward expansion and strengthening of higher than normal conditions, > 10x105 J/m3, along the equator from South America to 175°W, which is consistent with the reported setting of the 2023 El Niño event. Cooler than normal conditions, about -10x105 J/m3, persist across the Subtropical North Pacific Ocean, while much higher than normal conditions, > 30x105 J/m3, appear at mid-latitudes in the central and western Pacific Ocean. Much higher, > 30x105 J/m3, than normal OHC conditions continue to exist in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, the Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Current, the western tropical Pacific Ocean, and the northern Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Indian Ocean sector. Higher, > 10x105 J/m3, than normal OHC conditions dominate the subtropical eastern Indian Ocean, the Tasman Sea, and most of the South Atlantic Ocean. Cool conditions, < -10x105 J/m3, persist in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean south of Greenland.


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Citing This Report

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Monthly Global Climate Report for June 2023, published online July 2023, retrieved on July 17, 2024 from https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/monitoring/monthly-report/global/202306.