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Temperature

NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information calculates the global temperature anomaly every month based on preliminary data generated from authoritative datasets of temperature observations from around the globe. The major dataset, NOAAGlobalTemp version 5, updated in mid-2019, uses comprehensive data collections of increased global area coverage over both land and ocean surfaces. NOAAGlobalTempv5 is a reconstructed dataset, meaning that the entire period of record is recalculated each month with new data. Based on those new calculations, the new historical data can bring about updates to previously reported values. These factors, together, mean that calculations from the past may be superseded by the most recent data and can affect the numbers reported in the monthly climate reports. The most current reconstruction analysis is always considered the most representative and precise of the climate system, and it is publicly available through Climate at a Glance.


November 2022

The November 2022 global surface temperature departure was the ninth highest for November in the 143-year record at 0.76°C (1.37°F) above the 20th century average of 12.9°C (55.2°F). Despite ranking among the ten warmest Novembers on record, this November was the coolest November since 2014. November 2022 marked the 46th consecutive November and the 455th consecutive month with temperatures, at least nominally, above the 20th century average.

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The month of November was characterized by warmer-than-average conditions throughout most of Europe and much of southern Asia, as well as across parts of eastern and southern North America, northwestern Canada and Alaska, northwestern Africa, southern South America, and northeastern and southeastern Oceania. Parts of northern Europe, southeastern Asia, southern South America, and northeastern and southeastern Oceania experienced record-warm temperatures for the month. Sea surface temperatures were above average across much of the northern, western and southwestern Pacific, and the Atlantic. Overall, record-warm November temperatures encompassed about 8.7% of the world's surface — this tied with 2015 as the second-highest percentage for record-high November temperatures.

Temperatures were near- to cooler-than-average throughout much of western North America, eastern South America, northern and northeastern Asia, Australia, and across parts of north-central Africa. Parts of the Pacific Northwest in the U.S. experienced their coldest November in nearly 40 years. Consistent with La Niña, sea surface temperatures were below average over much of the south-central, central, and eastern tropical Pacific. Additionally, much of the Indian Ocean had cooler-than-average temperatures. No areas had record-cold November temperatures this month.

Europe tied 2000 for its third-warmest November on record.

South America, Asia, and Africa each had a November that ranked among their 20 warmest on record. North America had a warmer-than-average November, but it did not rank among its top 20 warmest on record.

  • The contiguous U.S. had a November that was 0.7°F cooler than average.
  • The Kingdom of Bahrain, an island country in western Asia, had its warmest November on record.
  • According to the Hong Kong Observatory, November in Hong Kong was the third-warmest on record.
  • Africa had its 11th-warmest November on record.

Oceania had a cooler-than-average November at 0.65°C (1.17°F) below average. It was the region's coolest November since 1999.

  • According to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Australia had a November that was 1.17°C below the 1961-1990 average for the month.
  • However, New Zealand recorded its warmest November on record according to its state meteorological agency. The warmest three Novembers in New Zealand have all occurred since 2019.
November Ranks and Records
November Anomaly Rank
(out of 143 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +0.96 ± 0.21 +1.73 ± 0.38 Warmest 17th 2020 +1.72 +3.10
Coolest 127th 1892 -1.06 -1.91
Ocean +0.68 ± 0.15 +1.22 ± 0.27 Warmest 5th 2015 +0.86 +1.55
Coolest 139th 1909 -0.48 -0.86
Land and Ocean +0.76 ± 0.16 +1.37 ± 0.29 Warmest 9th 2015 +1.00 +1.80
Coolest 135th 1908 -0.50 -0.90
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.17 ± 0.21 +2.11 ± 0.38 Warmest 14th 2010 +2.03 +3.65
Coolest 130th 1892 -1.33 -2.39
Ocean +0.89 ± 0.15 +1.60 ± 0.27 Warmest 6th 2015 +1.10 +1.98
Coolest 138th 1912 -0.54 -0.97
Land and Ocean +1.00 ± 0.18 +1.80 ± 0.32 Warmest 8th 2020 +1.30 +2.34
Coolest 136th 1892 -0.84 -1.51
Ties: 2004
Southern Hemisphere
Land +0.43 ± 0.14 +0.77 ± 0.25 Warmest 26th 2019 +1.45 +2.61
Coolest 118th 1917 -0.79 -1.42
Ties: 1998
Ocean +0.52 ± 0.15 +0.94 ± 0.27 Warmest 9th 2015 +0.69 +1.24
Coolest 135th 1924 -0.48 -0.86
Land and Ocean +0.50 ± 0.15 +0.90 ± 0.27 Warmest 14th 2015 +0.77 +1.39
Coolest 130th 1924 -0.50 -0.90
Ties: 2003

500 mb maps

In the atmosphere, 500-millibar height pressure anomalies correlate well with temperatures at the Earth's surface. The average position of the upper-level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure—depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the August 2022 map—is generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively.

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Seasonal Temperature: September–November 2022

The September–November 2022 global surface temperature was 0.84°C (1.51°F) above the 20th-century average of 14.0°C (57.1°F). This ranks as the fifth-warmest September–November period in the 143-year record, tied with the September–November periods of 2016 and 2018. The past ten September–November periods have been the ten warmest such periods on record.

The September–November period is defined as the Northern Hemisphere's meteorological autumn and the Southern Hemisphere's meteorological spring. The Northern Hemisphere autumn 2022 temperature was the fifth warmest on record, and the Southern Hemisphere spring temperature tied 2013 for the 12th warmest on record.

Europe had its third-warmest meteorological autumn on record at 1.85°C (3.33°F) above average. It was the fifth-warmest September–November period on record for both North America and Asia at 1.31°C (2.36°F) and 1.51°C (2.72°F) above average, respectively. Africa had its seventh-warmest September–November period on record. The Caribbean Islands region had its eighth-warmest September–November period on record. Meanwhile, Oceania had its coolest September–November period since 2010 and South America had its coolest such period since 2013.

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September–November Ranks and Records
September–November Anomaly Rank
(out of 143 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.20 ± 0.22 +2.16 ± 0.40 Warmest 6th 2020 +1.46 +2.63
Coolest 138th 1881, 1884 -0.76 -1.37
Ocean +0.71 ± 0.15 +1.28 ± 0.27 Warmest 5th 2015 +0.86 +1.55
Coolest 139th 1903, 1908 -0.46 -0.83
Land and Ocean +0.84 ± 0.16 +1.51 ± 0.29 Warmest 5th 2015 +0.99 +1.78
Coolest 139th 1912 -0.50 -0.90
Ties: 2016, 2018
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.38 ± 0.21 +2.48 ± 0.38 Warmest 6th 2021 +1.56 +2.81
Coolest 138th 1912 -0.96 -1.73
Ocean +0.95 ± 0.15 +1.71 ± 0.27 Warmest 4th 2015 +1.10 +1.98
Coolest 140th 1912 -0.54 -0.97
Land and Ocean +1.11 ± 0.19 +2.00 ± 0.34 Warmest 5th 2015 +1.21 +2.18
Coolest 139th 1912 -0.70 -1.26
Southern Hemisphere
Land +0.77 ± 0.14 +1.39 ± 0.25 Warmest 18th 2020 +1.41 +2.54
Coolest 126th 1880 -0.61 -1.10
Ties: 2003, 2004
Ocean +0.52 ± 0.15 +0.94 ± 0.27 Warmest 9th 2015 +0.67 +1.21
Coolest 135th 1903 -0.44 -0.79
Ties: 2014
Land and Ocean +0.56 ± 0.15 +1.01 ± 0.27 Warmest 12th 2015 +0.77 +1.39
Coolest 132nd 1903 -0.44 -0.79
Ties: 2013

Over the land surface, air temperatures for the season were above average across much of Europe, Asia, northern and western North America, northern and southern South America, northern and southern Africa, and northeastern and southeastern Oceania. Temperatures were near-average across parts of the southeastern U.S., central South America, the African countries Chad and Niger, and northeastern Russia. Below-average temperatures were observed across parts of Australia and the South American country Paraguay.

Sea surface temperatures for the season were above average across much of the northern and western Pacific, parts of the southeastern Pacific, and most of the Atlantic and eastern Indian oceans. Sea surface temperatures were below average over much of the central and eastern tropical Pacific.

Select national information is highlighted below. Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data:

  • The contiguous U.S. had an autumn that ranked in the warmest third of the historical record.
  • Chinese state media reported that autumn 2022 in China was the warmest since records began in 1961.
  • The United Kingdom had its third-warmest autumn since records began in 1884.
  • Italy also recorded its third-warmest autumn on record.
  • According to the Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark had its fourth-warmest autumn since records began in 1874. Temperatures were about 1.3°C above average for the season.
  • According to the Hong Kong Observatory, autumn in Hong Kong ranked warmest on record.


Year-to-date Temperature: January–November 2022

January to November was characterized by much-warmer-than-average conditions across much of North America, eastern South America, Europe, and Asia and across parts of northern and eastern Oceania and northwestern and southern Africa. Sea surface temperatures were warmer-than-average across much of the northern and western Pacific, the Atlantic, and the eastern Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, near- to cooler-than-average conditions were present across parts of western South America, north-central North America, and central northern Africa. The central and eastern tropical Pacific and parts of the western Indian Ocean experienced near- to cooler-than-average sea surface temperatures.

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The January–November global surface temperature was 0.86°C (1.55°F) above the 1901-2000 average of 14.0°C (57.2°F) — the sixth-highest January–November temperature in the 143-year record. The ten warmest January–November periods on record have occurred since 2010. According to NCEI's statistical analysis, the year 2022 is very likely to rank among the ten warmest years on record but a less than 1% chance to rank among the five warmest years on record.

Regionally, Europe and Asia each had their second-warmest January–November period on record after 2020. The Gulf of Mexico had its sixth-warmest year-to-date and the Caribbean Islands had their seventh-warmest year-to-date. North America, South America, Africa, and Oceania each had a top twenty warmest January–November period on record, though it did not rank among their top ten on record.

January–November Ranks and Records
January–November Anomaly Rank
(out of 143 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.31 ± 0.16 +2.36 ± 0.29 Warmest 7th 2020 +1.60 +2.88
Coolest 137th 1884 -0.71 -1.28
Ocean +0.69 ± 0.17 +1.24 ± 0.31 Warmest 6th 2016 +0.81 +1.46
Coolest 138th 1904 -0.47 -0.85
Land and Ocean +0.86 ± 0.16 +1.55 ± 0.29 Warmest 6th 2016 +1.01 +1.82
Coolest 138th 1904, 1911 -0.46 -0.83
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.49 ± 0.20 +2.68 ± 0.36 Warmest 5th 2020 +1.76 +3.17
Coolest 139th 1884 -0.83 -1.49
Ocean +0.87 ± 0.17 +1.57 ± 0.31 Warmest 5th 2020 +1.00 +1.80
Coolest 139th 1904 -0.51 -0.92
Ties: 2017
Land and Ocean +1.11 ± 0.17 +2.00 ± 0.31 Warmest 4th 2020 +1.29 +2.32
Coolest 140th 1904 -0.49 -0.88
Ties: 2015, 2017
Southern Hemisphere
Land +0.85 ± 0.12 +1.53 ± 0.22 Warmest 11th 2019 +1.25 +2.25
Coolest 133rd 1917 -0.75 -1.35
Ocean +0.55 ± 0.17 +0.99 ± 0.31 Warmest 7th 2016 +0.71 +1.28
Coolest 137th 1911 -0.45 -0.81
Ties: 1998
Land and Ocean +0.60 ± 0.16 +1.08 ± 0.29 Warmest 7th 2016 +0.77 +1.39
Coolest 137th 1911 -0.46 -0.83
Ties: 1998

Precipitation

The maps shown below represent precipitation percent of normal (left, using a base period of 1961–1990) and precipitation percentiles (right, using the period of record) based on the GHCN dataset of land surface stations.

November 2022

Above-average November precipitation was observed across parts of the southeastern U.S., northeastern South America and eastern Brazil, the United Kingdom, eastern and southeastern Asia, and most of Oceania. Meanwhile, drier-than-average conditions were present across parts of the western U.S., southeastern South America, central, eastern, and southwestern Europe, and southwestern Asia.

Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

The following analysis is based upon the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Interim Climate Data Record. It is provided courtesy of the GPCP Principal Investigator team at the University of Maryland.

November and Seasonal Highlights
  • La Niña effects dominated the tropics across the globe, both for November and for the September-November transition season, bringing dry conditions to some areas and associated floods and landslides to others, e.g., Australia and northeast South America.
  • Relatively dry conditions again extended across parts of western Europe, which reinforced drought conditions in areas, while a band of precipitation excess across the southern portion of the continent and eastward that led to some imbedded floods and landslides.
  • La Niña led to near-record-low global ocean precipitation totals for November that were only partially compensated for by high land precipitation values. This resulted in the usual below-average global total for La Niña conditions.

November Conditions

The November 2022 distribution of precipitation across the globe displayed the typical large-scale seasonal pattern, with southerly shifts of rainfall features over land in South Asia, Australia, Africa, and South America. Over tropical oceans, the seasonal shifts were subtler and the changes in the mid-latitude storm track features more complex. November is the practical end of the Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season, but some evidence of mid-Atlantic storm tracks was present.

The monthly anomaly plots (right, middle and bottom panels) emphasized where this particular November had layered its impact on the seasonal positions and magnitudes of the various features. The positive anomaly feature that stretched from the tropical western Atlantic northward, with a turn toward Europe, was a combination of tropical and extra-tropical systems tracking through the area and extending into the British Isles. This helped provide some dry condition relief. However, as is often the case with positive monthly anomalies, some associated extremes occurred, in this case flooding in northeast Scotland.

Further east in northern Europe, below-normal conditions existed over the western parts of the mainland and through Scandinavia. To the south, an area of excess precipitation ran from the Mediterranean to the east into central Asia. Again, an anomalous positive feature was connected with local events, including a landslide on the island of Ishia, just off the Italian mainland, and floods and landslides in Albania. Even in typically dry western Saudi Arabia (Jeddah), a flash flood with a reported 179 mm of rain in six hours occurred.

Across much of the tropics, the main story this month was still the ongoing La Niña. La Niña provided the distribution of ocean surface temperatures and accompanying moisture and dynamics that drove much of the monthly precipitation anomaly pattern across the tropics and beyond, as it has for the past two years. This pattern showed a negative rainfall anomaly feature in the western-central Pacific that extended eastward along the equator (with positive features in the ITCZ itself strung out just to the north).

Meanwhile, as expected, a strong area of more intense rain was present over Indonesia and the surrounding areas, including northern and other parts of Australia. Flooding over southeast Australia continued this month, mainly from last month's rainfall, but with some additional rainfall and flood events. To the west, negative anomalies existed over much of the Indian Ocean and extended into eastern Africa. Over South America, the anomaly pattern this month was also La Niña-like and very intense. The pattern was connected to very serious floods and landslides in Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and southeast Brazil. Above-average rainfall in the Atlantic ITCZ was also typical of La Niña conditions.

Over North America, the precipitation excess/deficit pattern was mottled, with dry conditions over Mexico and parts of the southwestern and midwestern U.S., and ample rainfall in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the country.

The analyzed global total precipitation numbers for this and previous Novembers (left) show a nearly record-breaking low value over the ocean for this November: 2.77 mm/d, an almost 6% deficit compared to climatology. This indicates the significant impact of the Pacific-based La Niña. However, this was compensated for by above-average land precipitation at about a 9% excess. However, the global total (land + ocean) was still lower than average—also a common feature of La Niña.

September to November Conditions

The figure to the right shows the mean rainfall and anomaly maps for the past three months, and the La Niña composite for these three months of the year based on the years before 2022. The positive correlation over the tropics between the two anomaly maps is obvious and again indicates the influence of the ENSO phenomena. The positive/negative couplet in the western Pacific along the equator, the excess rain over Australia (covering the entire continent this season), the distribution of features over both Africa and South America, and the deficit across Mexico and the southern U.S. all shout La Niña.

Less obvious, but still likely connected, were features such as in the eastern sub-tropical to western Europe dry zone that was associated with the continuing drought in that area. Another example was the oceanic region of excess precipitation running from Australia southeastward to the Magellan Strait and beyond. In the middle of the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii endured a La Niña-linked drought. As we approach the end of the calendar year, this La Niña continues to lengthen, and an early look at 2022 in review so far indicates that La Niña will dominate the discussion of the year's regional distribution of precipitation across the globe.

Drought

Drought Information based on global drought indicators is available at the Global Drought Information System website, and media reports summarized by the National Drought Mitigation Center.

November Highlights: Beneficial precipitation fell across parts of the drought areas in Europe, North America, and China during November 2022, but the month was drier than normal over other parts of the drought-plagued agricultural lands of these three continents as well as South America and Africa. Much of the world's agricultural lands were still suffering from low soil moisture and groundwater levels, with evaporative stress high for this time of year in the lower latitudes and Southern Hemisphere. The afflicted areas include the Canadian Prairies, Great Plains of the United States, Brazil and Argentina in South America, Western Europe, southeast China, and East Africa. Like last month, of the continents, Australia seems to be in the best shape.

Europe was warmer than normal in November. Western and southern parts of Europe were wetter than normal, but northern parts were drier than normal. September-November rains helped reduce short-term deficits, but longer-term precipitation deficits were still evident across much of Europe, as seen in Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) values at the 6-month to 24-month time scales, and in parts of southern Europe at longer time scales. Satellite-based observations indicated that soil moisture and ground water were still depleted, especially across central to eastern Europe. The European Combined Drought Indicator still showed areas of drought in the continent. According to media reports, the hot, dry summer that parched Europe threatened olives in Spain, the leading producer and exporter. The fall harvest was forecast to be nearly half the size of last year's harvest. Heat in May ruined many of the blossoms on the olive trees, and the ones that hung on produced small, thin fruits due to a lack of water. Also, a freshwater lagoon in southern Spain has gone dry as farming and tourism depleted the aquifer that once sustained the Doñana nature reserve, previously home to flamingos, herons and fish. Drought and the extreme heat of the summer finished the lagoon. Doñana is a wintering site for a half-million waterfowl and a stopover spot for millions more birds that migrate from Africa to northern Europe.

Much of Asia was wetter than normal in November, with below-normal precipitation limited to parts of southwestern and southeastern Asia and areas of Siberia. November temperatures were above normal across eastern and southern parts of the continent. The temperature and precipitation pattern for the last three months indicated drought stress in parts of southeast China, Southwest Asia, and central to northwest Asia, based on the SPEI and Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). Satellite-based data showed vegetative stress and low groundwater and soil moisture in these areas, as well as in parts of northwest Siberia. Long-term precipitation deficits were indicated by the SPI in central Asia at the 3- to 12-month time scales and in Southwest Asia for the last several years. According to media reports, months of extreme drought have revealed an ancient city in a reservoir on Iraq's Tigris River and the ruins of an ancient church and bathhouse in a reservoir in Turkey.

November was mostly dry for the Horn of Africa, while southern parts of the continent were wetter than average. Above-normal temperatures added to the dryness to compound drought stress as seen in the SPEI. Vegetative stress and low groundwater and soil moisture were indicated by satellite from the Horn of Africa into central parts of the continent, as well as areas along the Mediterranean coast and in parts of southern Africa. The SPI showed precipitation deficits for the last 3 years in the Horn and northern areas, with the SPEI extending the dryness out further back in time. According to media reports, millions of people in the Horn of Africa are enduring the driest conditions in four decades accompanied by extreme food shortages. Tanzanian authorities began rationing electricity because drought reduced hydropower generation; some areas will be without power for nine hours. Water levels at Zimbabwe's Kariba Dam, owned by Zimbabwe and Zambia, have fallen too low to produce hydropower, causing electricity shortages. The Kariba South Hydro Power Station provides Zimbabwe with about 70% of its electricity and has been producing significantly less than its capacity of 1,050 megawatts in recent years as drought lowered water levels.

Like the last two months, most of Australia was wetter and cooler than normal in November, giving the continent a cooler and wetter-than-normal austral spring (September-November). Parts of northern Australia were drier than normal at 9-month and longer time scales, as seen in the SPEI, but groundwater and soil moisture were mostly replenished continent-wide except in parts of southwest Australia. Little to no drought was indicated on Australian Bureau of Meteorology Combined Drought Indicator analyses.

Rain fell across northern and a few parts of southern South America, but November was drier than normal for most of the southern and central parts of the continent. Most of the drought areas in South America were warmer than normal, especially in the west and south, and this increased evaporative stress as seen in the ESI, exacerbating drought conditions. Satellite-based indicators revealed stressed vegetation and low groundwater and soil moisture across most of Argentina, southeastern to central Brazil, and parts of Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. The SPI and SPEI showed the dry conditions extending back 12 months and longer in these areas. Drought in southern and eastern Brazil was confirmed on the Northeast Brazil Drought Monitor. According to media reports, the Rosario Grains Exchange noted that "Argentina's wheat exports this season will not quite reach half of last season's shipments, with only 7 million tonnes of exports expected after months of dry weather halved the 2022/2023 harvest." Peru has endured its driest stretch in nearly half a century, drying lagoons that once were sources of drinking water for sheep.

In North America, frequent troughs in the upper-atmosphere gave the western U.S. and southwest Canada a cooler-than-normal November, with warmer-than-normal temperatures limited to northern, eastern, and southern parts of the continent. Above-normal precipitation fell across parts of the U.S., central Canada, and eastern and southern Mexico. But November was drier than normal in central parts of the U.S., much of western and parts of eastern Canada, and northwestern Mexico. The precipitation that did fall was not enough to erase deficits that have accumulated over many months. The excessively hot and dry summer and fall months resulted in very dry SPEI indicators across most of the U.S. and western and southern Canada at the 3- to 6-month time scales, and extending into Mexico at 9 to 12 months. Very dry conditions are evident in the western U.S. and Canadian Prairies even further back, out to the last 3 to 4 years. Satellite-based indicators showed low groundwater and dry soils across western Canada and parts of the western, central, and southeastern U.S. The North American Drought Monitor product depicted drought across much of western Canada, over more than half of the contiguous U.S., and over various parts of Mexico. According to media reports, in Canada, northeastern British Columbia continued to suffer from persistent drought that caused some of the poorest yields in years. The province issued a Level 5 drought warning, the highest warning, for four northeastern regions, including Fort Nelson Basin, North Peace Basin, East Peace Basin and South Peace Basin. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, early in the month, announced that the U.S. winter wheat crop was getting off to its worst start on record with more of the wheat rated poor to very poor at 34% than good to excellent at 30%.


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Citing This Report

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Monthly Global Climate Report for November 2022, published online December 2022, retrieved on February 4, 2023 from https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/monitoring/monthly-report/global/202211.