North Carolina Summary

From 1980–2024 (as of July 9, 2024), there have been 117 confirmed weather/climate disaster events with losses exceeding $1 billion each to affect North Carolina. These events included 12 drought events, 2 flooding events, 3 freeze events, 53 severe storm events, 29 tropical cyclone events, 2 wildfire events, and 16 winter storm events. The 1980–2023 annual average is 2.5 events (CPI-adjusted); the annual average for the most recent 5 years (2019–2023) is 6.2 events (CPI-adjusted).

Billion-dollar events to affect North Carolina from 1980 to 2024* (CPI-AUnadjusted)
Disaster TypeEventsEvents/​YearPercent FrequencyTotal CostsPercent of Total Costs
Severe Storm531.245.3%$5.0B-$10.0B9.5%
Tropical Cyclone290.624.8%$50.0B-$100.0B75.6%
Winter Storm160.413.7%$2.0B-$5.0B2.7%
All Disasters1172.6100.0%$50.0B-$100.0B100.0%
Severe Storm461.044.2%$5.0B-$10.0B10.2%
Tropical Cyclone280.626.9%$20.0B-$50.0B79.8%
Winter Storm110.210.6%$1.0B-$2.0B2.2%
All Disasters1042.3100.0%$50.0B-$100.0B100.0%
Select Time Period Comparisons of North Carolina Billion-Dollar Drought, Flooding, Freeze, Severe Storm, Tropical Cyclone, Wildfire, and Winter Storm Statistics (CPI-AUnadjusted)
Time PeriodBillion-Dollar DisastersEvents/YearCostPercent of Total Cost
1980s (1980-1989)111.1$10.0B-$20.0B12.3%
1990s (1990-1999)191.9$20.0B-$50.0B23.1%
2000s (2000-2009)181.8$5.0B-$10.0B8.6%
2010s (2010-2019)363.6$20.0B-$50.0B49.8%
Last 5 Years (2019-2023)316.2$5.0B-$10.0B7.1%
Last 3 Years (2021-2023)196.3$2.0B-$5.0B3.3%
Last Year (2023)77.0$500M-$1.0B0.9%
All Years (1980-2024)*1172.6$50.0B-$100.0B100.0%
1980s (1980-1989)50.5$2.0B-$5.0B5.8%
1990s (1990-1999)171.7$10.0B-$20.0B18.0%
2000s (2000-2009)161.6$2.0B-$5.0B7.8%
2010s (2010-2019)333.3$20.0B-$50.0B59.8%
Last 5 Years (2019-2023)316.2$5.0B-$10.0B9.5%
Last 3 Years (2021-2023)196.3$2.0B-$5.0B4.7%
Last Year (2023)77.0$500M-$1.0B1.4%
All Years (1980-2024)*1042.3$50.0B-$100.0B100.0%
Billion-Dollar Events to affect North Carolina
Event Type Begin
Summary CPI-AUnadjusted
(in Billions)
Central, Southern, Southeastern Tornado Outbreak
May 2024
Severe StormMay 6, 2024May 9, 2024An outbreak producing more than 165 tornadoes developed across many central, southern and southeastern states. The states most affected include Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. This multi-day torando outbreak produced at least 61 EF-0, 79 EF-1, 13 EF-2, three EF-3, one EF-4 tornado and dozens of EF-U (unknown/unrated) tornadoes, causing widespread damage to many homes, businesses, vehicles, agriculture and other infrastructure. The towns of Barnsdall and Bartlesville, Oklahoma were impacted by a violet EF-4 tornado that caused extensive damage.$4.7 CI3
Southern and Eastern Severe Weather
April 2024
Severe StormApril 8, 2024April 11, 2024Southern and eastern severe weather produced tornadoes, hail and high wind, from Texas to Virginia. The event began with severe hail and high wind impacts across central and eastern Texas, followed by more than 20 tornadoes impacting the Gulf Coast counties of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. There were additional high wind and tornado impacts in North Carolina and Virginia.$2.2 CI0
Central Tornado Outbreak and Eastern Severe Weather
April 2024
Severe StormApril 1, 2024April 3, 2024A central tornado outbreak produced more than 85 tornadoes across a three-day period from Oklahoma to West Virginia. This outbreak included 19 EF-0, 52 EF-1 and 14 EF-2 tornadoes, which were most concentrated across the Ohio River Valley on April 1-2. These tornadoes and severe weather impacts across several eastern states caused damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and other infrastructure.$2.5 CI3
Southern Severe Weather
February 2024
Severe StormFebruary 10, 2024February 12, 2024Severe storms produced up to golf ball sized hail across central and eastern Texas causing damage to homes, vehicles and businesses. Additional damage from hail and high winds and training thunderstorms caused flooding across portions of Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Florida and North Carolina.$1.1 CI0
Southern Tornado Outbreak and East Coast Storm
January 2024
Severe StormJanuary 8, 2024January 10, 2024Southern tornado outbreak and east coast storm impacted more than a dozen states. At least 39 preliminary tornadoes were clustered around the Florida Panhandle through the Carolinas while hundreds of high wind reports were scattered up the East Coast reflecting damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and other infrastructure. The strongest tornado was an EF-3 that caused significant damage around Panama City Beach, Florida, after an intense waterspout moved onshore.$2.8 CI3
East Coast Storm and Flooding
December 2023
FloodingDecember 16, 2023December 18, 2023Powerful east coast storm from Florida to Maine produced widespread impacts from heavy rainfall, flooding, high winds and coastal erosion. The heavy rainfall and snowmelt were amplified by record-high temperatures in the Northeast.$1.3 CI5
Hurricane Idalia
August 2023
Tropical CycloneAugust 29, 2023August 31, 2023Hurricane Idalia made landfall near Keaton Beach in the Big Bend region of Florida as a strong Category 3 hurricane with winds of 125 mph. Idalia was the strongest hurricane to hit the Big Bend region in more than 125 years. Storm surge was about 8 feet above ground at Cedar Key, which caused heavy damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and other infrastructure. Other Big Bend coastal communities were also inundated by storm surge. Idalia produced 5 to 10 inches of rainfall across the Big Bend region of Florida and southeastern portions of Georgia and the Carolinas. The relatively low population density of the Big Bend region helped to reduce the physical exposure and damage costs. Significant flooding was reported in downtown Charleston, SC and nearby Edisto Beach. There was also 2 to 4 feet of storm surge along the Carolina coastline, which was exacerbated by the full moon and high tide cycle.$3.6 CI5
Northeastern and Eastern Severe Weather
August 2023
Severe StormAugust 5, 2023August 8, 2023More than one thousand reports of high wind, severe hail or tornadoes across many Northeastern and Eastern states. August 7 was a prolific day of severe weather with damage reports from Georgia to New York. These storms caused impacts to many homes, vehicles, businesses, agriculture and other infrastructure.$1.7 CI4
Rockies Hail Storms and Central and Eastern Severe Weather
June 2023
Severe StormJune 21, 2023June 26, 2023Severe hail storms across Colorado damaged many homes, vehicles and injured approximately 100 people at a large outdoor concert. This multi-day outbreak of severe weather also produced more than 60 tornadoes across portions of Wyoming, Colorado, Minnesota, Indiana, Kentucky and Arkansas that caused damage to homes, businesses, vehicles, agriculture and other infrastructure.$5.4 CI8
Central and Eastern Tornadoes and Hail Storms
May 2023
Severe StormMay 10, 2023May 12, 2023Dozens of tornadoes and severe hail storms from the eastern Rockies and across several central states. The most costly severe hail impacts were focused in Colorado while numerous tornadoes also impacted western Kansas, central Oklahoma and eastern Nebraska. Texas and North Dakota were also impacted from combination of high winds, hail and isolated tornadoes with damage to homes, businesses, vehicles, farms and other infrastructure.$3.6 CI1
Central Tornado Outbreak and Eastern Severe Weather
March 2023
Severe StormMarch 31, 2023April 1, 2023A historic tornado outbreak across numerous central states caused widespread damage from at least 145 tornadoes. States most impacted were Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Iowa, Arkansas, Tennessee and Pennsylvania where there was severe damage to homes, businesses, vehicles, agriculture and other infrastructure.$5.9 CI33
Southern and Eastern Severe Weather
March 2023
Severe StormMarch 2, 2023March 3, 2023Severe storms impact numerous southern and eastern states including Texas, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio. Impacts from high wind and tornadoes cause widespread damage to homes, vehicles, businesses, government buildings and infrastructure.$6.1 CI13
Hurricane Ian
September 2022
Tropical CycloneSeptember 28, 2022September 30, 2022Ian made landfall near Cayo Costa, Florida, as a Category 4 Hurricane with sustained winds of 150 mph.$118.5 CI152
North Central and Eastern Severe Weather
July 2022
Severe StormJuly 22, 2022July 24, 2022Severe weather with high winds and 19 tornadoes impact numerous states including North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland and New York. Many homes, businesses, vehicles, agriculture and other infrastructure were damaged.$1.4 CI1
Central Derecho
June 2022
Severe StormJune 13, 2022June 13, 2022A powerful derecho carved a path a high wind damage across several states with the impacts focused in Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. Thousands of trees were downed from the high winds causing damage to many homes, businesses, vehicles, power lines and other infrastructure. There was also considerable hail damage across southern Wisconsin.$3.4 CI1
Southeast Tornado Outbreak
April 2022
Severe StormApril 4, 2022April 6, 2022A tornado outbreak on April 4-6 with a combined 100 preliminary tornadoes reported. The tornadoes occurred across Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida and South Carolina. Many of these tornadoes were clustered along the southern regions of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina. During this three-day period many of these tornadoes were rated as either EF-1 or EF-0, but there were also nine EF-2, three EF-3 and one EF-4 tornado. This EF-4 occurred in Pembroke, Georgia on April 5th with winds of 185 mph that destroyed several neighborhoods. Many of the other tornadoes across the South caused considerable damage to homes, businesses, vehicles, and other infrastructure.$1.5 CI3
Southern Tornado Outbreak
March 2022
Severe StormMarch 30, 2022March 30, 2022An outbreak of 83 tornadoes was focused across the Gulf Coast states including Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida.$1.4 CI2
Hurricane Ida
August 2021
Tropical CycloneAugust 29, 2021September 1, 2021Category 4 Hurricane Ida made landfall near Port Fourchon, Louisiana with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph (240km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 930 mb. Ida was one of three hurricanes in recorded history to make landfall in Louisiana with 150 mph winds, along with Hurricane Laura in 2020 and the 'Last Island' hurricane of 1856. Grand Isle, Louisiana took a direct hit with 100% of its homes damaged and nearly 40% were nearly-to-completely destroyed. There was heavy damage to the energy infrastructure across southern Louisiana causing widespread, long duration power outages to millions of people. Parts of New Orleans were without power for nearly a week due to the widespread damage. As the remnants of Ida moved into the Northeast it merged with a frontal system creating severe weather and flash flooding across a wide region from eastern Pennsylvania to New York. Flash flood emergencies were declared in New Jersey and New York for the first time, producing damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and infrastructure while also causing dozens of fatalities.$84.6 CI96
Tropical Storm Fred
August 2021
Tropical CycloneAugust 16, 2021August 18, 2021Tropical Storm Fred made landfall near Panama City, Florida. As Fred progressed northward it caused torrential flooding across the southern Appalachian Mountains with more than a foot of rainfall reported in some locations of western North Carolina. This flash flooding caused damage to many homes, businesses, vehicles, roads and bridges, in additional to several fatalities. Fred also produced nearly a dozen tornadoes across the Northeast as it moved up the East Coast.$1.5 CI7
Tropical Storm Elsa
July 2021
Tropical CycloneJuly 7, 2021July 9, 2021Tropical Storm Elsa made landfall in Taylor County, Florida producing heavy rain, wind, flooding and tornadoes in portions of Florida, Georgia and the Carolinas, as well as flooding across parts of the Northeast. Southern New England and New York's Long Island experienced flash flooding, leading to impassable roads, stranded vehicles and disruption. Elsa was the earliest fifth-named storm on record.$1.4 CI1
Southern Tornadoes and Southeast Severe Weather
May 2021
Severe StormMay 2, 2021May 4, 2021Tornadoes and severe storms with widespread high wind and large hail cause damage across many Southern and Southeastern states including Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee. There were over 111 confirmed tornadoes largely clustered in central Mississippi and surrounding states.$1.5 CI4
Eastern Severe Weather
March 2021
Severe StormMarch 27, 2021March 28, 2021Severe weather producing hail, high wind and more than two dozen tornadoes impacted numerous states including Arkansas, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia. Tennessee was also affected with significant flooding in Nashville and surrounding areas that damaged businesses, homes and vehicles. There were also many high wind damage reports across Pennsylvania, Maryland and New Jersey.$1.6 CI8
Tropical Storm Eta
November 2020
Tropical CycloneNovember 8, 2020November 12, 2020Tropical Storm Eta made landfall in the Florida Keys on November 8 followed by a second landfall near Cedar Key on the west coast of Florida on November 10. Eta produced wind and heavy rain impacts in southern Florida. These impacts continued well inland, as Eta's energy merged with a cold front across several eastern states. This combination produced extreme rainfall across North Carolina and Virginia, which led to significant flooding that damaged homes, businesses and infrastructure. This flooding also caused one dozen fatalities.$1.8 CI12
Hurricane Zeta
October 2020
Tropical CycloneOctober 28, 2020October 29, 2020Hurricane Zeta was a category 2 hurricane that made landfall at Cocodrie, Louisiana with maximum sustained winds of 110 mph on October 28th. Zeta's path inland saw an acceleration of its quick landfall speed to nearly 40 mph, which allowed the wind fields to maintain some strength. These wind impacts propagated well inland affecting parts of Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, northern Georgia and into the Carolinas. Hurricane Zeta was the fifth tropical cyclone to make landfall in Louisiana during 2020 as part of a historically active Atlantic hurricane season.$5.3 CI6
Hurricane Delta
October 2020
Tropical CycloneOctober 9, 2020October 11, 2020Hurricane Delta was a category 2 hurricane that made landfall near Creole, Louisiana with winds of 100 mph on October 9. This was nearly the same location in which category 4 Hurricane Laura made landfall 6 weeks prior. Heavy rainfall, high winds, storm surge, and nearly one dozen EF-0 or EF-1 tornadoes caused damage across several states including Louisiana, eastern Texas, Mississippi and Georgia.$3.5 CI5
Hurricane Isaias
August 2020
Tropical CycloneAugust 3, 2020August 4, 2020Hurricane Isaias made landfall in southeastern North Carolina as a category 1 storm. Isaias accelerated up the East Coast, resulting in widespread damage and power outages across New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. There was also considerable inland flooding most notably in Pennsylvania. In addition, 34 tornadoes developed across North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey due to Isaias. Many tornadoes were weaker (EF-0 and EF-1) producing scattered damage to agriculture, structures and residences. Isaias also produced several EF-2 tornadoes and one EF-3 tornado that caused damage in coastal North Carolina and Virginia.$5.8 CI16
South, Central and Eastern Severe Weather
May 2020
Severe StormMay 20, 2020May 23, 2020A combination of thunderstorm high winds, hail and tornadoes affected numerous Southern, Central and Eastern states. The states most affected included Texas, Illinois and North Carolina with damage to homes, businesses and vehicles. Oklahoma, Arkansas, Indiana, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Florida and South Carolina.$1.9 CI2
Southeast and Eastern Tornado Outbreak
April 2020
Severe StormApril 12, 2020April 13, 2020Outbreak of at least 140 tornadoes from Texas to Maryland including 3 EF4s, 12 EF3s, 20 EF2s, 77 EF1s and 28 EF0s. Damage was extensive and highly destructive to many homes, vehicles and businesses across more than a dozen Southeast and Eastern states.$4.2 CI35
North Central and Ohio Valley Hail Storms and Severe Weather
April 2020
Severe StormApril 7, 2020April 8, 2020Numerous hail storms caused widespread damage across many North Central and Ohio Valley states including Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin and Missouri. More than 20 tornadoes were also reorted across southern Indiana and Ohio. There was additional widespread high wind damage to homes, vehicles and businesses in many other surrounding states.$3.5 CI0
South, East and Northeast Severe Weather
February 2020
Severe StormFebruary 5, 2020February 7, 2020Severe weather across many South, East and Northeastern states including AL, FL, GA, SC, LA, MS, TN, NC, VA, PA, RI, NY, NJ, MD and MA. There were more than 20 tornadoes clustered across central Mississippi into Tennessee. There were also hundreds of high wind damage reports from Florida to New Jersey, with the Carolinas and Florida receiving the most costly damage.$1.5 CI3
Southeast Tornadoes and Northern Storms and Flooding
January 2020
Severe StormJanuary 10, 2020January 12, 2020More than 80 tornadoes and severe storms caused damage across many southeastern states (AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MS, MO, NC, OH, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI). Storms and severe flooding also impacted northern states including Michigan, Wisconsin and New York. Significant damage occurred along the shoreline of Lake Michigan to roads, the foundation of homes and to Port Milwaukee. These powerful waves were generated by high winds and a lack of seasonal ice cover.$1.4 CI10
Hurricane Dorian
September 2019
Tropical CycloneAugust 28, 2019September 6, 2019Category 1 hurricane makes landfall on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, after devastating the northern Bahama Islands as a historically-powerful and slow-moving hurricane. Dorian tracked offshore parallel to the Florida, Georgia and South Carolina coastline before making a North Carolina landfall, bringing a destructive sound-side surge that inundated many coastal properties and isolated residents who did not evacuate. Significant flood, severe storm, and tornado damage to many homes and businesses occurred on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Dorian's intensification to a category 5 storm marks the fourth consecutive year, in which a maximum category 5 storm developed in the Atlantic basin - a new record. Dorian also tied the record for maximum sustained wind speed for a landfalling hurricane (185 mph) in the Atlantic, a record shared with the historic 1935 Labor Day Hurricane.$2.0 CI10
South and Southeast Severe Weather
May 2019
Severe StormMay 7, 2019May 13, 2019Persistent severe storms impacted numerous states from Texas to North Carolina (TX, OK, KS, AR, LA, MS, AL, NC). Tornadoes and damaging hail particularly affected Texas, Louisiana and North Carolina focused across the Raleigh metro region.$1.9 CI0
Southern and Eastern Tornadoes and Severe Weather
April 2019
Severe StormApril 13, 2019April 14, 2019Tornado outbreak and severe storms impacted many states (TX, LA, MS, AL, GA, NC, OH and PA). More than 50 tornadoes occurred across central Mississippi and Alabama causing damage to vehicles, homes and businesses. More than 25 additional tornadoes also caused damage across several eastern states from Georgia to Pennsylvania. These severe storms also delivered damaging hail and high wind damage that was widespread across many Southern and and Eastern states.$1.5 CI7
Hurricane Michael
October 2018
Tropical CycloneOctober 10, 2018October 11, 2018Powerful category 5 hurricane made landfall at Mexico Beach, Florida with devastating winds of 160 mph and storm surge in excess of 15 feet. Mexico Beach was nearly destroyed, while Panama City suffered extensive damage. Florida's Tyndall Air Force Base also suffered a direct strike from Michael's most intense eye wall winds causing billions in damage costs. Michael's intense winds also reached well inland causing billions in damage costs to agriculture and forestry, as high winds hit during harvest season for numerous crops across several states. Michael is the third category 4 or higher storm to make landfall in the U.S. since 2017. Michael is the first category 5 to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Andrew in 1992 and is only the fourth on record. The others are the Labor Day Hurricane (1935) and Hurricane Camille (1969). Michael was initially rated as a category 4 with 155 winds but upgraded to a category 5 with 160 mph winds upon further analysis.$31.0 CI49
Hurricane Florence
September 2018
Tropical CycloneSeptember 13, 2018September 16, 2018Hurricane Florence was a large and very slow moving hurricane that produced extreme rainfall across eastern North Carolina (up to 35.93") and South Carolina (up to 23.81"), as prodigious amounts of rainfall were common in many locations. Florence made landfall as a category 1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC with damaging storm surge up to 10 feet and wind gusts reported over 100 mph. However, the majority of the damage caused by Florence was due to the rainfall inland, which caused many rivers to surpass previous record flood heights. U.S. Marine base Camp Lejeune in North Carolina suffered extensive damage that will cost billions to repair. The total damage from Florence in North Carolina is more than the cost experienced during Hurricane Matthew (2016) and Hurricane Floyd (1999) combined.$29.8 CI53
Central and Eastern Tornadoes and Severe Weather
July 2018
Severe StormJuly 19, 2018July 22, 2018At least 41 tornadoes and high wind damage from thunderstorms impact numerous Central and Eastern states (MO, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, AL, AR, GA, TN, NC, SC, VA, MD, PA) over a multi-day event. The tornado damage was most severe across Iowa.$2.0 CI0
Southern and Eastern Tornadoes and Severe Weather
April 2018
Severe StormApril 13, 2018April 16, 2018Tornadoes and severe storms with large hail cause widespread damage across many Southern and Eastern states (AR, FL, GA, LA, MD, MI, MS, MO, NJ, NY, NC, PA, SC, TX, VA) over a multi-day period. There were over 70 confirmed tornadoes largely clustered in Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and Virginia. This same system also caused winter storm impacts of high wind and ice accumulation in northeastern states.$1.6 CI3
Northeast Winter Storm
March 2018
Winter StormMarch 1, 2018March 3, 2018Powerful Nor'easter impacted many Northeastern states including MD, MA, NH, NJ, NY, PA, CT, DE, RA and VA. Widespread damage resulted from the combination of high winds, heavy snow and heavy coastal erosion.$2.8 CI9
Central and Eastern Winter Storm
January 2018
Winter StormJanuary 3, 2018January 5, 2018A Nor'easter caused damage across many Northeastern states including MA, NJ, NY, CT, ME, NH, PA, MD, RI, SC, TN, VA, NC and GA.$1.3 CI22
Hurricane Irma
September 2017
Tropical CycloneSeptember 6, 2017September 12, 2017Category 4 hurricane made landfall at Cudjoe Key, Florida after devastating the U.S. Virgin Islands - St John and St Thomas - as a category 5 storm. The Florida Keys were heavily impacted, as 25% of buildings were destroyed while 65% were significantly damaged. Severe wind and storm surge damage also occurred along the coasts of Florida and South Carolina. Jacksonville, FL and Charleston, SC received near-historic levels of storm surge causing significant coastal flooding. Irma maintained a maximum sustained wind of 185 mph for 37 hours, the longest in the satellite era. Irma also was a category 5 storm for longer than all other Atlantic hurricanes except Ivan in 2004.$63.5 CI97
Hurricane Harvey
August 2017
Tropical CycloneAugust 25, 2017August 31, 2017Category 4 hurricane made landfall near Rockport, Texas causing widespread damage. Harvey's devastation was most pronounced due to the large region of extreme rainfall producing historic flooding across Houston and surrounding areas. More than 30 inches of rainfall fell on 6.9 million people, while 1.25 million experienced over 45 inches and 11,000 had over 50 inches, based on 7-day rainfall totals ending August 31. This historic U.S. rainfall caused massive flooding that displaced over 30,000 people and damaged or destroyed over 200,000 homes and businesses.$158.8 CI89
South and Southeast Severe Weather
April 2017
Severe StormApril 20, 2017April 22, 2017Severe weather including hail, high winds and several tornadoes impacted Oklahoma, Texas, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia. These conditions caused damage to homes, businesses, vehicles and other infrastructure.$1.1* CI0
Southeast Severe Weather and Tornadoes
April 2017
Severe StormApril 4, 2017April 6, 2017Severe weather and tornadoes impact numerous southern and eastern states. The states most impacted include Alabama, Georgia and Kentucky.$1.2 CI1
Southeast Freeze
March 2017
FreezeMarch 14, 2017March 16, 2017Severe freeze heavily damaged fruit crops across several southeastern states (SC, GA, NC, TN, AL, MS, FL, KY, VA). Mid-March freezes are not climatologically unusual in the Southeast, however many crops were blooming 3+ weeks early due to unusually warm temperatures during the preceding weeks. Damage was most severe in Georgia and South Carolina. Crops most impacted include peaches, blueberries, strawberries and apples, among others.$1.3 CI0
Central/Southeast Tornado Outbreak
March 2017
Severe StormFebruary 28, 2017March 1, 2017Over 70 tornadoes developed during a widespread outbreak across many central and southern states causing significant damage. There was also widespread straight-line wind and hail damage. This was the second largest tornado outbreak to occur early in 2017.$2.3 CI6
West/Northeast/Southeast Drought
DroughtJanuary 1, 2016December 31, 2016California's 5-year drought persisted during 2016 while new areas of extreme drought developed in states across the Northeast and Southeast. The long-term impacts of the drought in California have damaged forests where 100+ million trees have perished and are a public safety hazard. The agricultural impacts were reduced in California as water prices and crop fallowing declined. However, agricultural impacts developed in Northeast and Southeast due to stressed water supplies.$4.6 CI0
Hurricane Matthew
October 2016
Tropical CycloneOctober 8, 2016October 12, 2016Category 1 hurricane made landfall in North Carolina, after it paralleled the Southeast coast along Florida, Georgia and the Carolinas causing widespread damage from wind, storm surge and inland flooding. The most costly impacts were due to historic levels of river flooding in eastern North Carolina where 100,000 homes, businesses and other structures were damaged. This inland flooding was comparable to Hurricane Floyd (1999) that also impacted eastern North Carolina. Matthew narrowly missed landall on Florida's east coast as a powerful category 4 storm.$13.0 CI49
South/Southeast Tornadoes
April 2016
Severe StormApril 26, 2016May 2, 2016Large outbreak of tornadoes affects numerous states across the South and Southeast. Additional damage also from large hail and straight-line wind during the multi-day thunderstorm event.$3.1 CI6
Southeast and Eastern Tornadoes
February 2016
Severe StormFebruary 22, 2016February 24, 2016Early outbreak of tornadoes and severe weather across many southern and eastern states including (AL, CT, FL, GA, LA, MA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, SC, TX, VA). There were at least 50 confirmed tornadoes causing widespread damage.$1.4 CI10
South Carolina and East Coast Flooding
October 2015
FloodingOctober 1, 2015October 5, 2015Historic levels of flooding impacted South Carolina causing widespread damage to many homes, businesses, public buildings and infrastructure. This interrupted commerce and closed major transportation corridors (such as I-95) for weeks as rivers slowly receded. Locally extreme rainfall totals exceeding 20-inches were common resulting from the convergence of a powerful low pressure system/frontal boundary and copious moisture from Hurricane Joaquin in the Atlantic.$2.6 CI25
South/Southeast Severe Weather
April 2015
Severe StormApril 18, 2015April 20, 2015Severe storms across the South and Southeastern states (AL, AR, FL, GA, KS, LA, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX). High winds and severe hail created the most significant damage in Texas.$1.7 CI0
Midwest/Ohio Valley Severe Weather
April 2015
Severe StormApril 7, 2015April 9, 2015Severe storms across the Midwest and Ohio Valley including the states (AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MO, NC, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX, WI, WV). Large hail and high winds created the most damage across Missouri and Illinois.$2.1 CI2
Central and Eastern Winter storm, Cold Wave
February 2015
Winter StormFebruary 14, 2015February 20, 2015A large winter storm and associated cold wave impacted many central, eastern and northeastern states (CT, DE, GA, IL, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA). The city of Boston was particularly impacted as feet of snow continued to accumulate causing load-stress on buildings and clogging transportation corridors. Total, direct losses in Massachusetts alone exceed $1.0 ($1.3) billion for this event, with considerable damage in many other states.$4.0 CI30
Midwest/Southeast/Northeast Tornadoes and Flooding
April 2014
Severe StormApril 27, 2014May 1, 2014Tornado outbreak across the Midwest, Southeast and Northeast states (AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, KS, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, TN, VA) with 83 confirmed tornadoes. Mississippi had its 3rd greatest number of tornadoes reported for any day since 1950. Torrential rainfall in the Florida panhandle also caused major flooding, as Pensacola set new 1-day and 2-day precipitation records of 15.55 and 20.47 inches, respectively. Flooding rains were also reported in coastal Alabama, as Mobile received 11.24 inches of rain, the third greatest calendar day rainfall total for the city.$2.3 CI33
Midwest/Southeast/Northeast Winter Storm
January 2014
Winter StormJanuary 5, 2014January 8, 2014Winter storm caused widespread damage across numerous Midwest, Southeast and Northeastern states (AL, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA).$2.9 CI16
Hurricane Sandy
October 2012
Tropical CycloneOctober 30, 2012October 31, 2012Extensive damage across several northeastern states (MD, DE, NJ, NY, CT, MA, RI) due to high wind and coastal storm surge, particularly NY and NJ. Damage from wind, rain and heavy snow also extended more broadly to other states (NC, VA, WV, OH, PA, NH), as Sandy merged with a developing Nor'easter. Sandy's impact on major population centers caused widespread interruption to critical water/electrical services and also caused 159 deaths (72 direct, 87 indirect). Sandy also caused the New York Stock Exchange to close for two consecutive business days, which last happened in 1888 due to a major winter storm.$88.5 CI159
Plains/East/Northeast Derecho
June-July 2012
Severe StormJune 29, 2012July 2, 2012Sustained outbreak of thunderstorms/high winds from a strong derecho event over the central, eastern, and northeastern states (IL, IN, KY, OH, WV, SC, NC, VA, MD, DC, NJ).$4.0 CI28
Southern Plains/Southwest Drought and Heat Wave
Spring-Summer 2011
DroughtMarch 1, 2011August 31, 2011Drought and heat wave conditions created major impacts across Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, southern Kansas, and western Louisiana. In Texas and Oklahoma, a majority of range and pastures were classified in "very poor" condition for much of the 2011 crop growing season.$17.1 CI95
Hurricane Irene
August 2011
Tropical CycloneAugust 26, 2011August 28, 2011Category 1 hurricane made landfall over coastal NC and moved northward along the Mid-Atlantic Coast (NC, VA, MD, NJ, NY, CT, RI, MA, VT) causing torrential rainfall and flooding across the Northeast. Wind damage in coastal NC, VA, and MD was moderate with considerable damage resulting from falling trees and power lines, while flooding caused extensive flood damage across NJ, NY, and VT. Over seven million homes and businesses lost power during the storm. Numerous tornadoes were also reported in several states further adding to the damage.$18.8 CI45
Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes and Severe Weather
June 2011
Severe StormJune 18, 2011June 22, 2011Outbreak of tornadoes over central states (OK, TX, KS, NE, MO, IA, IL) with an estimated 81 tornadoes. Additional wind and hail damage across the Southeast (TN, GA, NC, SC).$2.1 CI3
Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes
April 2011
Severe StormApril 14, 2011April 16, 2011Outbreak of tornadoes over central and southern states (OK, TX, AR, MS, AL, GA, NC, SC, VA, PA) with an estimated 177 tornadoes.$2.9 CI38
Southeast/Midwest Tornadoes
April 2011
Severe StormApril 8, 2011April 11, 2011Outbreak of tornadoes over central and southern states (NC, SC, TN, AL, TX, OK, KS, IA, WI) with an estimated 59 tornadoes.$3.1 CI0
Midwest/Southeast Tornadoes and Derecho
April 2011
Severe StormApril 4, 2011April 5, 2011Outbreak of tornadoes and derecho over central and southern states (KS, MO, IA, IL, WI, KY, GA, TN, NC, SC) with an estimated 46 tornadoes.$3.9 CI9
Rockies/Central/East Severe Weather
June 2010
Severe StormJune 10, 2010June 15, 2010Severe storms cause high wind and hail damage across numerous states including CO, NM, KS, OK, IL, IN, GA, SC and NC.$1.3* CI2
Northeast Winter Storm
February 2010
Winter StormFebruary 9, 2010February 11, 2010Winter storm produced 10-20 inches of snow and high wind impacts across numerous northeastern and eastern states including Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia and North Carolina. These impacts were most focused in Pennsylvania and Maryland, as this winter storm closely followed a previous winter storm from the week prior.$1.2* CI3
Midwest, South and East Severe Weather
June 2009
Severe StormJune 9, 2009June 12, 2009Sustained outbreak of thunderstorms and high winds from a strong derecho event over the central, southern, and eastern states (TX, OK, MO, NE, KS, AR, AL, MS, TN, NC, SC, KY, PA).$1.9 CI0
Western/Eastern Drought/Heat Wave
Summer-Fall 2007
DroughtJune 1, 2007November 30, 2007Severe drought with periods of extreme heat over most of the southeast and portions of the Great Plains, Ohio Valley, and Great Lakes area, resulting in major reductions in crop yields, along with very low stream-flows and lake levels. Includes states of ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, TX, MN, WI, IA, MO, AR, LA, MS, AL, GA, NC, SC, FL, TN, VA, WV, KY, IN, IL, OH, MI, PA, NY.$5.5 CI15
East/South Severe Weather and Flooding
April 2007
Severe StormApril 13, 2007April 17, 2007Flooding, hail, tornadoes, and severe thunderstorms across numerous states (CT, DE, GA, LA, ME, MD, MA, MS, NH, NJ, NY, NC, PA, RI, SC, TX, VT, VA) in mid-April, including 3 "killer" tornadoes.$3.8 CI9
Spring Freeze
April 2007
FreezeApril 4, 2007April 10, 2007Widespread severe freeze over much of the east and midwest (AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MO, MS, NC, NE, OH, OK, SC, TN, VA, WV), causing significant losses in fruit crops, field crops (especially wheat), and the ornamental industry. Temperatures in the teens/20s accompanied by rather high winds nullified typical crop-protection systems.$3.2 CI0
Southeast Severe Weather
March 2005
Severe StormMarch 24, 2005March 27, 2005Severe storms cause widespread hail damage across numerous states including TX, AL, MS, GA, FL, NC and VA.$1.4* CI0
Hurricane Jeanne
September 2004
Tropical CycloneSeptember 15, 2004September 29, 2004Category 3 hurricane makes landfall in east-central Florida, causing considerable wind, storm surge, and flooding damage in FL, with some flood damage also in the states of GA, SC, NC, VA, MD, DE, NJ, PA, and NY. Puerto Rico also affected.$12.4 CI28
Hurricane Ivan
September 2004
Tropical CycloneSeptember 12, 2004September 21, 2004Category 3 hurricane makes landfall on Gulf coast of Alabama, with significant wind, storm surge, and flooding damage in coastal AL and FL panhandle, along with wind/flood damage in the states of GA, MS, LA, SC, NC, VA, WV, MD, TN, KY, OH, DE, NJ, PA, and NY.$33.8 CI57
Hurricane Frances
September 2004
Tropical CycloneSeptember 3, 2004September 9, 2004Category 2 hurricane makes landfall in east-central Florida, causing significant wind, storm surge, and flooding damage in FL, along with considerable flood damage in the states of GA, SC, NC, and NY due to 5-15 inch rains.$16.2 CI48
Hurricane Charley
August 2004
Tropical CycloneAugust 13, 2004August 14, 2004Category 4 hurricane makes landfall in southwest Florida, resulting in major wind and some storm surge damage in FL, along with some damage in the states of SC and NC.$26.6 CI35
Severe Storms, Hail, Tornadoes
May 2004
Severe StormMay 21, 2004May 27, 2004Severe storms including tornadoes and hail cause damage across the Midwest, South, Southeast and Northeast regions. The states impacted include IA, IL, IN, KY, MI, MO, NC, NE, NY, OK, OH and WI.$1.7 CI4
Hurricane Isabel
September 2003
Tropical CycloneSeptember 18, 2003September 19, 2003Category 2 hurricane makes landfall in eastern North Carolina, causing considerable storm surge damage along the coasts of NC, VA, and MD, with wind damage and some flooding due to 4-12 inch rains in NC, VA, MD, DE, WV, NJ, NY, and PA.$9.3 CI55
Severe Storms/Tornadoes
May 2003
Severe StormMay 3, 2003May 10, 2003Numerous tornadoes over the midwest, Mississippi valley, OH/TN valleys, and portions of the southeast, with a modern record one-week total of approximately 400 tornadoes reported$7.1 CI51
U.S. Drought
Spring-Fall 2002
DroughtMarch 1, 2002November 30, 2002Moderate to extreme drought over large portions of more than 30 states, including the western states, the Great Plains, and much of the eastern U.S.$15.9 CI0
Severe Storms and Tornadoes
April 2002
Severe StormApril 27, 2002April 28, 2002Numerous tornadoes and widespread hail damage over the Central and Eastern states including NC, GA, VA, TX, AR, MO, MS, TN, IL, IN, KY, PA, MD, NY, OH, WV, and KS.$3.7 CI7
Southeast Winter Storm
January 2000
Winter StormJanuary 21, 2000January 24, 2000Strong winter storm causes disruption and damage over numerous southeastern states (AL, GA, NC, SC, TN, LA, VA). Record amounts of snowfall occured across central North Carolina, with snow totals in excess of 20 inches.$1.3* CI4
Hurricane Floyd
September 1999
Tropical CycloneSeptember 14, 1999September 16, 1999Large, category 2 hurricane makes landfall in eastern NC, causing 10-20 inch rains in 2 days, with severe flooding in NC and some flooding in SC, VA, MD, PA, NY, NJ, DE, RI, CT, MA, NH, and VT.$12.1 CI77
Eastern Drought/Heat Wave
Summer 1999
DroughtJune 1, 1999August 31, 1999Very dry summer and high temperatures, mainly in eastern U.S., with extensive agricultural losses. The states impacted include AL, AR, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, OH, SC, TN, VA, WV and PA.$4.8 CI502
Oklahoma and Kansas Tornadoes
May 1999
Severe StormMay 3, 1999May 6, 1999Outbreak of F4-F5 tornadoes hit the states of Oklahoma and Kansas, along with Texas and Tennessee, Oklahoma City area hardest hit.$3.8 CI55
Central and Eastern Winter Storm
January 1999
Winter StormJanuary 1, 1999January 4, 1999South, Southeast, Midwest, Northeast affected by damaging winter storm$2.0 CI25
Southern Drought and Heat Wave
Summer 1998
DroughtJune 1, 1998August 31, 1998Severe drought and heat wave from Texas/Oklahoma eastward to the Carolinas. The states impacted include AL, AR, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, and VA.$6.8 CI200
Hurricane Bonnie
August 1998
Tropical CycloneAugust 27, 1998August 29, 1998Category 3 hurricane strikes eastern North Carolina and Virginia, extensive agricultural damage due to winds and flooding, with 10-inch rains in 2 days in some locations.$1.9 CI3
Northern Plains and Great Lakes Derecho, Tornadoes
June 1998
Severe StormMay 30, 1998June 2, 1998Severe storms in late May through early June hit the Midwest, North, Northeast, and Southeast$2.2 CI20
Western/Eastern Severe Weather and Flooding
Winter-Spring 1998
Severe StormDecember 1, 1997February 28, 1998Tornadoes and flooding cause damage across the West and Southeast. The states impacted include CA, TX, FL, AL, GA, LA, MS, NC and SC.$2.0 CI132
Mississippi and Ohio Valley Severe Weather and Flooding
March 1997
Severe StormFebruary 28, 1997March 5, 1997Tornadoes and severe flooding hit the states of AR, MO, MS, TN, IL, IN, KY, OH, and WV, with over 10 inches of rain in 24 hours in Louisville.$1.9 CI67
Hurricane Fran
September 1996
Tropical CycloneSeptember 5, 1996September 8, 1996Category 3 hurricane strikes North Carolina and Virginia, over 10-inch 24-hour rains in some locations and extensive agricultural and other losses.$10.0 CI37
January 1996
Winter StormJanuary 1, 1996January 31, 1996Very heavy snowstorm (1-4 feet) over Appalachians, Mid-Atlantic, and Northeast; followed by severe flooding in parts of same area due to rain and snowmelt.$6.1 CI187
Hurricane Opal
October 1995
Tropical CycloneOctober 4, 1995October 6, 1995Category 3 hurricane strikes Florida panhandle, Alabama, western Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and the western Carolinas, causing storm surge, wind, and flooding damage.$9.6 CI27
Southeast Ice Storm
February 1994
Winter StormFebruary 8, 1994February 13, 1994Intense ice storm with extensive damage in portions of TX, OK, AR, LA, MS, AL, TN, GA, SC, NC, and VA.$6.4 CI9
Winter Storm, Cold Wave
January 1994
Winter StormJanuary 17, 1994January 20, 1994Winter storm affects the Southeast and Northeast regions. The states impacted include CT, DE, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT and WV.$2.2 CI70
Southeast Drought and Heat Wave
Summer 1993
DroughtJune 1, 1993August 31, 1993Drought and heat wave across Southeastern U.S. The states most impacted include AL, FL, GA, MD, NC, SC, TN, and VA.$2.8 CI16
East Coast Blizzard and Severe Weather
March 1993
Winter StormMarch 11, 1993March 14, 1993The "Storm of the Century" impacts the entire Eastern seaboard from Florida to Maine. This historic storm dumped 2-4 feet of snow and caused hurricane force winds across many Eastern and Northeastern states. This caused power outages to over 10 million households. Additional impacts included numerous tornadoes across Florida causing substantial damage. This was the most destructive and costly winter storm to affect the United States (since 1980), until it was surpassed by the February 2021 winter storm and cold wave.$12.1 CI270
Southeast Severe Weather
November 1992
Severe StormNovember 21, 1992November 23, 1992Three-day tornado outbreak strikes many Central and Eastern states including TX, LA, AL, MS, GA, AR, IN, OH, KY, TN, and NC. Major damage was reported across many areas, as more than 100 tornadoes were reported. This event remains one of the most prolific Fall season tornado outbreaks on record.$1.5* CI26
Hurricane Bob
August 1991
Tropical CycloneAugust 18, 1991August 20, 1991Category 2 hurricane brushes the Outer Banks of North Carolina before making landfall in Rhode Island. Its impacts were felt from North Carolina to Long Island and into New England.$3.5 CI18
Severe Storms, Tornadoes
March 1991
Severe StormMarch 26, 1991March 29, 1991Severe storms hit the Midwest, Southeast, Northeast. The states impacted include KS, IL, MI, IN, MS, TN, KY, OH, AL, PA, NY, GA, SC and NC.$1.5* CI0
Winter Storm, Cold Wave
December 1989
Winter StormDecember 21, 1989December 26, 1989Winter storm and deep cold impacts the Northeast, South and Southeast. The states impacted include AL, AR, CT, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, ME, MO, MS, NC, NH, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT and WV.$1.7* CI100
Hurricane Hugo
September 1989
Tropical CycloneSeptember 21, 1989September 22, 1989Category 4 hurricane devastates South and North Carolina with ~20 foot storm surge and severe wind damage after hitting Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands$22.6 CI86
Southern Derecho and Severe Storms
May 1989
Severe StormMay 1, 1989May 6, 1989A derecho caused high wind damage across much of Texas into Louisiana. Severe storms cause damage in states across the South and Southeast. The states impacted include OK, TX, LA, MS, GA, SC, NC and VA.$1.4* CI21
Southeast Drought/Heat Wave
Summer 1986
DroughtJune 1, 1986August 31, 1986Severe summer drought in parts of the southeastern U.S. with severe losses to agriculture. The states impacted include AL, AR, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN and VA.$5.2 CI100
Hurricane Gloria
September 1985
Tropical CycloneSeptember 26, 1985September 28, 1985Category 2 hurricane makes several landfalls along the eastern seaboard, affecting states from North Carolina to Maine.$2.5* CI11
Winter Storm, Cold Wave
January 1985
Winter StormJanuary 19, 1985January 22, 1985Extreme cold and winter storms in the Southeast, South, Southwest, Northeast, Midwest, and North$2.5* CI150
Tornadoes, Severe Storms, Floods
Spring 1984
Severe StormMarch 27, 1984April 7, 1984States in the Southeast and Northeast regions are impacted by tornadoes, severe storms, and flooding. The states impacted include GA, FL, SC, NC, VA, MD, DE, NJ, NY, PA, CT, MA and RI.$1.8* CI80
Southeast Drought
Summer 1983
DroughtJune 1, 1983August 31, 19831983 flash drought in the southeastern U.S. with losses to agriculture, most notably corn and soybeans. The states impacted include AL, AR, GA, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, SC, TN and VA.$9.5 CI0
Midwest/Southeast/Northeast Winter Storm, Cold Wave
January 1982
Winter StormJanuary 8, 1982January 16, 1982Winter storm and cold wave affect numerous states (AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV) across the Midwest, Southeast and Northeast.$2.2* CI85
Central/Eastern Drought/Heat Wave
Summer-Fall 1980
DroughtJune 1, 1980November 30, 1980Central and eastern U.S. drought/heat wave caused damage to agriculture and other related industries. Combined direct and indirect deaths (i.e., excess mortality) due to heat stress estimated at 10,000.$40.5 CI1,260

Deaths associated with drought are the result of heat waves. (Not all droughts are accompanied by extreme heat waves.)

Flooding events (river basin or urban flooding from excessive rainfall) are separate from inland flood damage caused by tropical cyclone events.

*Statistics valid as of July 9, 2024

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