Skip to main content

The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 4 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1981-10-31 to 2010-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0087989)


 (MI_Metadata)
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.nodc:0087989
    language:
      LanguageCode:  eng
    characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        organisationName:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            address:  (CI_Address)
                electronicMailAddress:  ncei.info@noaa.gov
            onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/contact
                protocol:  HTTPS
                name:  NOAA Contact Information
                description:  Information for contacts at NCEI.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
    dateStamp:
      DateTime:  2021-10-19T12:10:20Z
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
return to top
    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 4 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1981-10-31 to 2010-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0087989)
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  2012-04-10
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  2021-10-15
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
            edition: (inapplicable)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                authority:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  International DOI Foundation (IDF)
                    date: (inapplicable)
                code:
                  Anchor:  DOI 10.7289/v59g5jr3
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                authority:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                    date: (inapplicable)
                code:
                  Anchor:  NCEI Dataset ID gov.noaa.nodc:0087989
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                authority:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  NCEI Archive Management System
                    date: (inapplicable)
                code:
                  Anchor:  NCEI Accession ID 0087989
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        electronicMailAddress:  ncei.info@noaa.gov
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/contact
                        protocol:  HTTPS
                        name:  NCEI Contact Information
                        description:  Information for contacts at NCEI.
                        function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/2224 Kenneth S. Casey
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 US DOC; NOAA; NESDIS; National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        electronicMailAddress:  Kenneth.Casey@noaa.gov
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) resourceProvider
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/295 US DOC; NOAA; NESDIS; National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC)
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        electronicMailAddress:  NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
                        protocol:  HTTPS
                        name:  US National Oceanographic Data Center website
                        description:  Institution web page
                        function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) resourceProvider
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/2224 Casey, Kenneth S.
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        electronicMailAddress:  Kenneth.Casey@noaa.gov
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Selig, Elizabeth R.
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/4522 Foti, Gregg
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/295 US National Oceanographic Data Center
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        electronicMailAddress:  NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
                        protocol:  HTTPS
                        name:  US National Oceanographic Data Center website
                        description:  Institution web page
                        function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/295 US DOC; NOAA; NESDIS; National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC)
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        electronicMailAddress:  NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
                        protocol:  HTTPS
                        name:  US National Oceanographic Data Center website
                        description:  Institution web page
                        function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) contributor
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/738 University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) contributor
            presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) tableDigital
        abstract:  The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for coral reef ecosystem applications but relevant to other ecosystems as well. The CoRTAD Version 4 contains global, approximately 4 km resolution SST data on a weekly time scale from 1981 through 2010. Version Changes: Version 4, 1981-10-31 - 2010-12-31, Global 4320x8640, Tile 540x540, NetCDF-4 Classic Version 3, 1982-01-01 - 2009-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF5 Version 2, 1982-01-01 - 2008-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF5 Version 1, 1985-01-01 - 2005-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF4 NODC Accession Numbers: v3 0068999; v2 0054501; v1 0044419 CoRTAD 4 is derived from Pathfinder 5.2 Sea Surface Temperature, while CoRTAD 3 utilized Pathfinder 5.1 and 5.0. CoRTAD 4 has 14 extra months of data, 11 percent more pixels and is produced in NetCDF-Classic format compared to CoRTAD 3. CoRTAD 4 has slightly improved harmonics and contains additional metadata. CoRTAD 4 is compliant with version 1.0 of NODC's NetCDF templates (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/data/formats/netcdf). In addition to SST, the CoRTAD contains SST anomaly (SSTA, weekly SST minus weekly climatological SST), thermal stress anomaly (TSA, weekly SST minus the maximum weekly climatological SST), SSTA Degree Heating Week (SSTA_DHW, sum of previous 12 weeks when SSTA >= 1 degree C), SSTA Frequency (number of times over the previous 52 weeks that SSTA >= 1 degree C), TSA DHW (TSA_DHW, also known as Degree Heating Week, sum of previous 12 weeks when TSA >= 1 degree C), and TSA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that TSA >=1 degree C). The CoRTAD was created at the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center in partnership with the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill, with support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program. The purpose of the CoRTAD is to provide sea surface temperature data and related thermal stress parameters with good temporal consistency, high accuracy, and fine spatial resolution. The CoRTAD is intended primarily for climate and ecosystem related applications and studies and was designed specifically to address questions concerning the relationship between coral disease and bleaching and temperature stress.
        purpose:  To provide sea surface temperature data and related thermal stress parameters with good temporal consistency, high accuracy, and fine spatial resolution. The CoRTAD is intended primarily for climate and ecosystem related applications and studies and was designed specifically to address questions concerning the relationship between coral disease and bleaching and temperature stress.
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) historicalArchive
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    electronicMailAddress:  ncei.info@noaa.gov
                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/contact
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    name:  NCEI Contact Information
                    description:  Information for contacts at NCEI.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
        resourceMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
            maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/metadata/landing-page/bin/gfx?id=gov.noaa.nodc:0087989
            fileDescription:  Preview graphic
            fileType:  PNG
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/086c68e5-1c94-4f2f-89d5-0453443ff249 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/e59896e0-3b4d-43ea-9348-f1f456305d05 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/086c68e5-1c94-4f2f-89d5-0453443ff249 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NODC > National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) dataCentre
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2021
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
                edition:  11
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            city:  Greenbelt
                            administrativeArea:  MD
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  GCMD Keyword Forum Page
                            description:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). 2021. GCMD Keywords, Version 11. Greenbelt, MD: Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). URL (GCMD Keyword Forum Page): https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0087989 0087989
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0087989 87989
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NCEI ACCESSION NUMBER
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2012-04-30
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/datatype/details/93 CORAL
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/datatype/details/523 FISH - CORAL REEF
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/datatype/details/153 HABITAT
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/datatype/details/201 INVERTEBRATE SPECIES
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/datatype/details/319 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/datatype/details/373 WATER TEMPERATURE
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/insttype/details/225 AVHRR-2
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/insttype/details/224 AVHRR-3
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) instrument
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/obstype/details/20 satellite data
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/platform/details/2350 NOAA-11
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/platform/details/7052 NOAA-14
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/platform/details/10468 NOAA-16
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/platform/details/10614 NOAA-17
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/platform/details/10633 NOAA-18
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/platform/details/10632 NOAA-7
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/platform/details/10462 NOAA-9
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) platform
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/738 University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/295 US DOC; NOAA; NESDIS; National Oceanographic Data Center
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) dataCentre
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NODC COLLECTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/295 US DOC; NOAA; NESDIS; National Oceanographic Data Center
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) dataCentre
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/project/details/5 COASTAL
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/project/details/467 Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/project/details/302 CORAL REEF STUDIES
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) project
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/seaname/details/179 World-Wide Distribution
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  oceanography
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  WMO_CategoryCode
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2012-09-15
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  2068
            keyword:  513
            keyword:  C047 The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database
            keyword:  The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) project
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  CRCP Project
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Numeric Data Sets > Oceanography
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Coastal Habitat
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Water Temperature
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/abc6f016-d1f0-4725-b847-639de054d13f EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/47be68db-d10d-43e7-b150-61cfd3f06126 EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE ECOSYSTEMS > COASTAL
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/fa3bc02d-31a7-4456-b716-a8b8f8393c86 EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE ECOSYSTEMS > REEF > CORAL REEF
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/23703b6b-ee15-4512-b5b2-f441547e2edf EARTH SCIENCE > Climate Indicators
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/bd24a9a9-7d52-4c29-b2a0-6cefd216ae78 EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/46206e8c-8def-406f-9e62-da4e74633a58 EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > WATER TEMPERATURE
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/ad497e7a-48fa-45e1-90a5-b052508bdb30 EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/dff4d4af-e1e0-4991-884b-a1c088a802b2 EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES > COASTAL LANDFORMS > CORAL REEFS
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2021
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
                edition:  11
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            city:  Greenbelt
                            administrativeArea:  MD
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  GCMD Keyword Forum Page
                            description:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). 2021. GCMD Keywords, Version 11. Greenbelt, MD: Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). URL (GCMD Keyword Forum Page): https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/600b228b-165c-4f80-96e2-7ee2d9989680 AVHRR-2 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/87c44e15-54c8-407d-a881-8035a2d5512b AVHRR-3 > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) instrument
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2021
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
                edition:  11
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            city:  Greenbelt
                            administrativeArea:  MD
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  GCMD Keyword Forum Page
                            description:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). 2021. GCMD Keywords, Version 11. Greenbelt, MD: Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). URL (GCMD Keyword Forum Page): https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/b2e2ad86-b73f-44fd-9992-6f32820ea847 NOAA-11 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-11
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/d4bfa8e2-4ce3-482e-8b2a-1297f65fdc8a NOAA-14 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/53a886bf-db3f-4b8c-a111-ba6593dae207 NOAA-16 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/b4d60d40-59b9-46ab-a4c5-a2e534680b05 NOAA-17 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-17
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/37afee26-f2fd-47df-b8e0-7cccd71e6b8c NOAA-18 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-18
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/fd4a398d-682c-4748-8349-83a8aa47cebf NOAA-7 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-7
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/304d5731-5627-4f4a-9b9e-3de6f39f9b3d NOAA-9 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-9
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) platform
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2021
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
                edition:  11
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            city:  Greenbelt
                            administrativeArea:  MD
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  GCMD Keyword Forum Page
                            description:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). 2021. GCMD Keywords, Version 11. Greenbelt, MD: Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). URL (GCMD Keyword Forum Page): https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://vocab.ices.dk/services/pox/GetCodeDetail/SHIPC/3101 NOAA-11 (ICES code: 3101)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://vocab.ices.dk/services/pox/GetCodeDetail/SHIPC/3277 NOAA-14 (ICES code: 3277)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://vocab.ices.dk/services/pox/GetCodeDetail/SHIPC/33J9 NOAA-16 (ICES code: 33J9)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://vocab.ices.dk/services/pox/GetCodeDetail/SHIPC/33ZS NOAA-17 (ICES code: 33ZS)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://vocab.ices.dk/services/pox/GetCodeDetail/SHIPC/33WM NOAA-18 (ICES code: 33WM)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://vocab.ices.dk/services/pox/GetCodeDetail/SHIPC/33V2 NOAA-7 (ICES code: 33V2)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://vocab.ices.dk/services/pox/GetCodeDetail/SHIPC/33OO NOAA-9 (ICES code: 33OO)
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) platform
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  ICES/SeaDataNet Ship Codes
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Marshall Islands > Marshall Islands > Marshall Islands (09N168E0000)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Micronesia > Micronesia (07N150E0000)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Northern Mariana Islands > Northern Mariana Islands > Northern Mariana Islands ( CNMI ) (18N146E0000)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Palau > Palau > Palau ( Belau ) (07N134E0000)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > American Samoa (14S170W0000)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Guam > Guam (13N144E0000)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (28N178W0000)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Navassa Island > Navassa Island > Navassa Island (18N075W0001)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Texas > West Flower Garden Banks (27N093W0002)
            keyword:  COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > U. S. Virgin Islands > U. S. Virgin Islands > U. S. Virgin Islands (17N064W0000)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea /North Atlantic Ocean > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea > Navassa Island > Navassa Island > Navassa Island (18N075W0001)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea > Virgin Islands > Lesser Antilles > U. S. Virgin Islands (17N064W0000)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Gulf of Mexico > Florida
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Indian Ocean
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Marshall Islands > Marshall Islands (09N168E0000)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (28N178W0000)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Carolines > Micronesia (07N150E0000)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Carolines > Palau ( Belau ) (07N134E0000)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Guam > Guam (13N144E0000)
            keyword:  OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Mariana Archipelago > Northern Mariana Islands ( CNMI ) (18N146E0000)
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  CoRIS Place Thesaurus
                date: (inapplicable)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:
              Anchor:  https://gcmdservices.gsfc.nasa.gov/kms/concept/3d4e44c4-5d99-4a9b-8388-43c63533ee97 GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL OCEAN
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2021
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
                edition:  11
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            city:  Greenbelt
                            administrativeArea:  MD
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  GCMD Keyword Forum Page
                            description:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). 2021. GCMD Keywords, Version 11. Greenbelt, MD: Earth Science Data and Information System, Earth Science Projects Division, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). URL (GCMD Keyword Forum Page): https://wiki.earthdata.nasa.gov/display/gcmdkey
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_Constraints)
            useLimitation:  accessLevel: Public
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Cite as: Casey, Kenneth S.; Selig, Elizabeth R.; Foti, Gregg (2012). The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 4 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1981-10-31 to 2010-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0087989). [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.7289/v59g5jr3. Accessed [date].
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useLimitation:  Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            accessConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NOAA Polar Orbiter Data User's Guide
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  1998-11-30
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  November 1998
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    positionName: (unknown)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/satellite/publications/podguides/TIROS-N%20thru%20N-14/
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  NOAA Polar Orbiter Data User's Guide
                            description:  TIROS-N thru N-14
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (unknown)
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1258 NOAA National Environmental, Satellite, Data, and Information Services (NESDIS)/National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            electronicMailAddress:  ncdc.info@noaa.gov
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  US National Climatic Data Center website
                            description:  Institution web page
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1258 US DOC; NOAA; NESDIS; National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            electronicMailAddress:  ncdc.info@noaa.gov
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name:  US National Climatic Data Center website
                            description:  Institution web page
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) userGuide
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2003-11-07
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    positionName: (unknown)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/SeaSurfaceTemperature
                            protocol:  HTTP
                            name:  Sea Surface Temperature
                            description:  PO.DAAC SST web page
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (unknown)
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/207 US NASA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  A comparison of satellite and in situ-based sea surface temperature climatologies
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  1999-06-30
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                    authority:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  International DOI Foundation (IDF)
                        date: (inapplicable)
                    code: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1848:ACOSAI>2.0.CO;2
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    positionName: (unknown)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1848:ACOSAI>2.0.CO;2
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1848:ACOSAI>2.0.CO;2
                            description:  journal article
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (unknown)
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/2224 Casey, K.S.
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            electronicMailAddress:  Kenneth.Casey@noaa.gov
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  P. Cornillon
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  American Meteorological Society
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                series:  (CI_Series)
                    name:  J. Climate
                    issueIdentification:  Volume 12, No. 6
                otherCitationDetails:  pp. 1848-1862
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) sciencePaper
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global and regional sea surface temperature trends
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2001-09-30
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                    authority:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  International DOI Foundation (IDF)
                        date: (inapplicable)
                    code: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3801:GARSST>2.0.CO;2
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    positionName: (unknown)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3801:GARSST>2.0.CO;2
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3801:GARSST>2.0.CO;2
                            description:  journal article
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (unknown)
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/2224 Casey, K.S.
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            electronicMailAddress:  Kenneth.Casey@noaa.gov
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  P. Cornillon
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  American Meteorological Society
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                series:  (CI_Series)
                    name:  J. Climate
                    issueIdentification:  Volume 14, No. 18
                otherCitationDetails:  pp. 3801-3818
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) sciencePaper
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Overview of the NOAA/NASA advanced very high resolution radiometer Pathfinder algorithm for sea surface temperature and associated matchup database
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2001-05-15
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                    authority:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  International DOI Foundation (IDF)
                        date: (inapplicable)
                    code: https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JC000065
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    positionName: (unknown)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JC000065
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name: https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JC000065
                            description:  journal article
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (unknown)
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Kilpatrick, K. A.
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Podestá, G. P.
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Evans, R.
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) documentDigital
                series:  (CI_Series)
                    name:  J. Geophys. Res.
                    issueIdentification:  106:C5
                otherCitationDetails:  pp. 9179-9197
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) sciencePaper
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2010
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                    authority:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  International DOI Foundation (IDF)
                        date: (inapplicable)
                    code: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00522.x
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    positionName: (unknown)
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00522.x
                            protocol:  HTTPS
                            name: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00522.x
                            description:  journal article
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (unknown)
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Elizabeth R. Selig
                    organisationName:  Conservation International
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/2224 Kenneth Casey
                    organisationName:
                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            electronicMailAddress:  Kenneth.Casey@noaa.gov
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  John F. Bruno
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  John Wiley and Sons Ltd
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
                presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) documentDigital
                series:  (CI_Series)
                    name:  Global Ecology and Biogeography
                    issueIdentification:  Volume 19, No. 3
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) sciencePaper
        language:
          LanguageCode:  eng; USA
        characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) environment
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) economy
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) biota
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -180
                eastBoundLongitude:  180
                southBoundLatitude:  -90
                northBoundLatitude:  90
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1981-10-31
                    endPosition:  2010-12-31
        supplementalInformation:  [Text below adapted from: Selig, E.R., K.S. Casey, and J.F. Bruno (2010). New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management, Global Ecology and Biogeography, DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00522.x. Hereafter referred to as "SCB2010".] The CoRTAD was developed using data from the Pathfinder Version 5.2 collection produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (http://pathfinder.nodc.noaa.gov). These sea surface temperature data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and are processed to a resolution of approximately 4.6 km at the equator. These data have the highest resolution covering the longest time period of any satellite-based ocean temperature dataset. Daytime and nighttime data were averaged weekly using data with a quality flag of 4 or better. This level is a commonly accepted cutoff for "good" data (Kilpatrick et al., 2001, Casey and Cornillon, 1999). Previous versions of CoRTAD also incorporated pixels up to 5 degrees warmer than a course resolution reference SST based on the Reynolds Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST version 2.0). Since Pathfinder Version 5.2 already uses a finer resolution reference field (25 km Daily OISST) this additional step was not incorporated. These processes resulted in a weekly SST dataset that is roughly 80% gap free. To create a gap-free dataset for analysis, 3 x 3 pixel median spatial fill was used. A temporal fill was performed using the Piecewise Cubic Hermite Interpolating Polynomial (PCHIP) function in Matlab (The Mathworks Inc.) to fill the remaining gaps. This conservative approach was chosen because it provided interpolated SSTs that are bounded by the nearest available values in time. It also used data from only a very limited spatial domain, which is an important consideration given the variability of coral reef environments. Using these gap-filled data, we then created site-specific climatologies for each reef grid cell to describe long-term temperature patterns over the 29-year dataset (Eqn. 1). The climatology was generated using a harmonic analysis procedure that fits annual and semi-annual signals to the time series of weekly SSTs at each grid cell: climSST(t) = A*cos(2pi*t + B) + C*cos(4pi*t + D) + E (1) where t is time, A and B are coefficients representing the annual phase and amplitude, C and D are the semi-annual phase and amplitude, and E is the long-term temperature mean. Similar approaches have been used for generating climatologies because they are more robust than simple averaging techniques, which can be more susceptible to data gaps from periods of cloudiness (Podesta et al., 1991, Mesias et al., 2007). Earlier CoRTAD versions were derived from Pathfinder 5.0/5.1 which attempted to represent the SST's at depths of about 1 meter, similar to the SST as measured by drifting buoys. Following the recommendations of the Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST), Pathfinder 5.2 represents the "skin" SST that is actually measured by the AVHRR instruments. Thus, Pathfinder Version 5.2 SST's are on average 0.17K lower than those of earlier versions (Donlon et al., 2007). This difference is only in the temperature parameters of CoRTAD, since it is subtracted out in the calculations of the anomalies and all the derived thermal stress metrics. As of the release of CoRTAD version 4 a gap exists in the Pathfinder 5.2 dataset from 1994 day 275 to 1995 day 17 since Level 1B GAC data from NOAA-9 is not available from the NOAA archives. For these 3.5 months SST has been interpolated from Pathfinder 5.0 and 0.17K is subtracted to get the skin temperature. Temperature anomaly metrics: Several metrics could be used to link coral reef ecosystem health with temperature including trophic structure, diversity or percent coral cover (Newman et al., 2006, Roberts et al., 2002, Bruno and Selig, 2007). However, this analysis focused on coral bleaching and disease because they are key drivers of coral decline and their relationships with temperature patterns are better understood (Aronson and Precht, 2001, Bruno et al., 2007, Glynn, 1993). Analyses were performed on two metrics (see Table 1 of SCB2010): one that is commonly known to lead to bleaching (Liu et al., 2003, Strong et al., 2004, Glynn, 1993), and one that is correlated with increased disease severity (Selig et al., 2006, Bruno et al., 2007). Coral bleaching results when corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae (Glynn, 1993, Glynn, 1996). Bleaching is a natural stress response not only to warm temperatures, but also to cool temperatures (Hoegh-Guldberg and Fine, 2004) as well as light and salinity values different from the normal range (Glynn, 1993). Corals can recover from bleaching, but their ability to do so is dependent on the magnitude and duration of the anomaly event (Glynn, 1993). The temperature thresholds that result in coral bleaching vary by location and species (Berkelmans and Willis, 1999). Bleaching is often connected to Thermal Stress Anomalies (TSAs), which are defined as areas where temperatures exceed by 1 degree C or more the climatologically warmest week of the year (Table 2, Glynn, 1993). The temperature anomaly thresholds relevant to disease have been studied in only one pathogen-host system (Selig et al., 2006, Bruno et al., 2007). In that system, changes in disease cases were correlated with Weekly Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies (WSSTAs), temperatures that were 1 degree C greater than the weekly average for that location. The best metric for predicting bleaching or disease may vary according to location, species, and pathogen (Selig et al., 2006, Bruno et al., 2007, Berkelmans, 2002). For example, bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef was best predicted by the maximum anomaly over a 3 day period (Berkelmans et al., 2004), rather than an anomaly metric like the TSA. Although the 7-day averaging approach in the CoRTAD may be too temporally coarse to capture all bleaching events, it is necessary to maintain consistency and minimize gaps in the dataset across broad spatial scales. In addition, the data are less likely to yield false positives for TSAs and will likely capture most WSSTA events, which have a lower temperature threshold. References: (see SCB2010 for complete list) In this accession, NODC has archived multiple versions of these data. The latest (and best) version of these data has the largest version number.
return to top
    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                  Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        electronicMailAddress:  NCEI.Info@noaa.gov
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free. However, fees may apply for custom orders, data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
                orderingInstructions:  Contact NCEI for other distribution options and instructions.
            distributorFormat:  (MD_Format)
                name:  netCDF
                version:  NetCDF-4 Classic
                specification:  Network Common Data Form (NetCDF-4 Classic)
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/products/coral-reef-temperature-anomaly-database
                    protocol:  HTTP
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  HTTP
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  214174.98
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: http://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/oceans/cortad/Version4/
                    protocol:  HTTP
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  HTTP
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for data access and direct download.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  214174.98
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: ftp://ftp-oceans.ncei.noaa.gov/pub/data.nodc/cortad/Version4/
                    protocol:  FTP
                    applicationProfile:  Any FTP client
                    name:  FTP
                    description:  These data are available through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). FTP is no longer supported by most internet browsers. You may copy and paste the FTP link to the data into an FTP client (e.g., FileZilla or WinSCP).
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  214174.98
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: http://www.ncei.noaa.gov/thredds-ocean/catalog/cortad/Version4/catalog.html
                    protocol:  THREDDS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browsers can browse THREDDS Data Servers and specialized THREDDS software can enable more sophisticated data access and visualizations.
                    name:  THREDDS
                    description:  These data are available through a variety of services via a THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). Depending on the dataset, the TDS can provide WMS, WCS, DAP, HTTP, and other data access and metadata services as well. For more information on the TDS, see http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/thredds/current/tds/.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://doi.org/10.7289/v59g5jr3
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  NCEI Dataset Landing Page
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page with download links.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/oas/87989
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  Descriptive Information
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page with download links.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  214174.98
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/download/87989
                    protocol:  HTTPS
                    applicationProfile:  Web browser
                    name:  HTTPS
                    description:  Navigate directly to the URL for data access and direct download.
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            distributorTransferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
                transferSize:
                  Real:  214174.98
                onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                    linkage: ftp://ftp-oceans.ncei.noaa.gov/nodc/archive/arc0052/0087989/
                    protocol:  FTP
                    applicationProfile:  Any FTP client
                    name:  FTP
                    description:  These data are available through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). FTP is no longer supported by most internet browsers. You may copy and paste the FTP link to the data into an FTP client (e.g., FileZilla or WinSCP).
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
return to top
    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NCEI Accession 0087989 was revised and v2.2 was published.
                rationale:  Updates were received for this dataset. These updates were copied into the data/0-data/ directory of this accession. These updates may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. This version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2012-04-10T16:16:08Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0087989 v2.2
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (inapplicable)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            individualName: (inapplicable)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0087989/2.2
                                    protocol:  HTTPS
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0087989 v2.2
                                    description:  published 2012-04-10T16:16:08Z
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
                            role: (inapplicable)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NCEI Accession 0087989 v1.1 was published.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2021-10-15T13:20:36Z
                output:  (LE_Source)
                    sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  NCEI Accession 0087989 v1.1
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (inapplicable)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                        citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                            individualName: (inapplicable)
                            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                                onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                    linkage: https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/0087989/1.1
                                    protocol:  HTTPS
                                    name:  NCEI Accession 0087989 v1.1
                                    description:  published 2021-10-15T13:20:36Z
                                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
                            role: (inapplicable)
return to top
    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) repository
            levelDescription:  (MD_ScopeDescription)
                other:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
return to top
    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        maintenanceNote:  Metadata are developed, maintained and distributed by NCEI. Updates are performed as needed to maintain currentness.
        maintenanceNote:  NCEI Accession 0087989 was revised and a new version of the archival package was published. Updates to existing archival packages may provide additional files or replace obsolete files. The latest version contains the most complete and up-to-date representation of this archival information package. All of the files received prior to this update are available in the preceding version of this accession. Please see journal.txt in the /about directory for additional details on changes made.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
return to top
    acquisitionInformation:  (MI_AcquisitionInformation)
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  AVHRR-2
            type:  AVHRR-2
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2 The AVHRR-2 is a multi purpose imaging instrument used for global measurement of cloud cover, sea surface temperature, ice, snow and vegetation cover and characteristics. This instrument was initially carried on NOAA-7 (launched June 1981) and was last flown on NOAA-14 which was decommissioned in 2005. This 5-channel radiometer covering 2 visible and 3 thermal infrared between 0.63 and 12.0 micrometers, has an instantaneous footprint of 1.1 km at the sub satellite point. Additional Information: https://nwpsaf.eu/deliverables/aapp/avhrr_2.html
        instrument:  (MI_Instrument)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  AVHRR-3
            type:  AVHRR-3
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3 The AVHRR-3 is a six channel scanning radiometer providing 3 solar channels in the visible-near infrared region and 3 thermal infrared channels. The AVHRR-3 has two one-micrometer wide channels between 10.3 and 12.5 micrometers. This latest version of AVHRR was first carried on NOAA-15 launched in May 1998 and subsequently in all current NOAA and MetOp platforms. Measuring the same view, this array of diverse wavelengths, after processing, permits multi spectral analysis for more precisely defining hydrologic, oceanographic, and meteorological parameters. Comparison of data from two channels is often used to observe features or measure various environmental parameters. The three channels operating entirely within the infrared band are used to detect the heat radiation from and hence, the temperature of land, water, sea surfaces, and the clouds above them. Additional Information: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pod-guide/ncdc/docs/klm/html/c3/sec3-1.htm
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-11
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/333 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument:  #inst_be0e
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-14
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/336 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument:  #inst_be0e
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-16
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-16 from United States. Name NOAA-16 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2000 Decommissioned Date 2014 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched September 2000. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information Source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/338 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument:  #inst_be0f
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-17
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-17 from United States. Name NOAA-17 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2002 Decommissioned Date 2013 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched June 2002. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/339 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument:  #inst_be0f
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-18
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-18 from United States. Name NOAA-18 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2005 Decommissioned Date 2016 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched May 2005 as NOAA-N. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/340 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument:  #inst_be0f
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-7
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-7 from UNITED STATES. Name NOAA-7 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Commissioned Date 1981-06-23 Decommissioned Date 1986-06-07 Notes Selected global data available from NOAA. Significant contribution to Space weather and operational meteorology. Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/329 All known Instruments flying on NOAA-7 Acronym - Full name Argos - Argos Data Collection System AVHRR/2 - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer / 2 HIRS/2 - High-resolution Infra Red Sounder / 2 MSU - Microwave Sounding Unit SSU - Stratospheric Sounding Unit SEM/MEPED - SEM / Medium energy proton detector SEM/TED - SEM / Total Energy Detector Submitted to ICES on 2018-07-17. Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08.
            instrument:  #inst_be0e
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-9
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-9 from UNITED STATES. Name NOAA-9 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08. Commissioned Date 1984-12-12 Decommissioned Date 1998-02-13 Notes Selected global operational meteorology data available from NOAA. Significant contribution to Atmospheric chemistry and Space weather. All known Instruments flying on NOAA-9 Acronym - Full name Argos - Argos Data Collection System AVHRR/2 - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer / 2 ERBE - Earth Radiation Budget Experiment HIRS/2 - High-resolution Infra Red Sounder / 2 MSU - Microwave Sounding Unit S&RSAT - Search & Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking System SBUV/2 - Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet / 2 SSU - Stratospheric Sounding Unit SEM/MEPED - SEM / Medium energy proton detector SEM/TED - SEM / Total Energy Detector Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/331 Submitted to ICES on 2018-07-17. Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08.
            instrument:  #inst_be0e