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The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 5 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2012 (NCEI Accession 0126774)


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            title:  The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 5 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2012 (NCEI Accession 0126774)
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                date:  2015-04-28
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        abstract:  Version 5 of the Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a global, 4 km, sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics dataset for 1982-01-02 to 2012-12-28. The CoRTAD contains weekly-averaged SSTs, SST anomaly (SSTA, weekly SST minus weekly climatological SST), thermal stress anomaly (TSA, weekly SST minus the maximum weekly climatological SST), SSTA Degree Heating Week (SSTA_DHW, sum of previous 12 weeks when SSTA is greater than or equal to 1 degree C), SSTA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that SSTA is greater than or equal to 1 degree C), TSA DHW (TSA_DHW, also known as a Degree Heating Week, sum of previous 12 weeks when TSA is greater than or equal to 1 degree C), and TSA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that TSA is greater than or equal to 1 degree C). In addition, the CoRTAD includes ancillary sea ice concentration and marine wind speed data. These data are the fifth in the series of CoRTAD datasets originally created in association with Elizabeth Selig (Director, Marine Science, Conservation International) and John Bruno (University of North Carolina; UNC - Chapel Hill). This dataset is based on the Pathfinder V5.2 dataset, and is created with support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program.
        purpose:  To provide sea surface temperature data and related thermal stress parameters with good temporal consistency, high accuracy, and fine spatial resolution. The CoRTAD is intended primarily for climate and ecosystem related applications and studies and was designed specifically to address questions concerning the relationship between coral disease and bleaching and temperature stress.
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                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/3011 Zhang, Yongsheng
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                title:  A high-resolution satellite-derived sea surface temperature climatology for the western North Atlantic Ocean
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                    individualName:  Kilpatrick, K. A.
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                    individualName:  Podestá, G. P.
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                    individualName:  Evans, R.
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                title:  New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management
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                    date:  2010
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                    code: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00522.x
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                    individualName:  Elizabeth R. Selig
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                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/person/details/2224 Kenneth Casey
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                      Anchor:  https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/archive-management-system/OAS/bin/prd/jquery/institution/details/1730 NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
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                            electronicMailAddress:  Kenneth.Casey@noaa.gov
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                    individualName:  John F. Bruno
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                    name:  Global Ecology and Biogeography
                    issueIdentification:  Volume 19, No. 3
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        language:
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        characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) environment
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) economy
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) biota
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -180
                eastBoundLongitude:  180
                southBoundLatitude:  -90
                northBoundLatitude:  90
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                    beginPosition:  1982-01-02
                    endPosition:  2012-12-28
        supplementalInformation:  [Text below adapted from: Selig, E.R., K.S. Casey, and J.F. Bruno (2010). New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management, Global Ecology and Biogeography, DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00522.x. Hereafter referred to as "SCB2010".] The CoRTAD was developed using 1982-2012 data from the Pathfinder Version 5.2 collection (Casey et al., 2011) produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (http://pathfinder.nodc.noaa.gov). These sea surface temperature data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and are processed to a resolution of approximately 4.6 km at the equator. These data have the highest resolution covering the longest time period of any satellite-based ocean temperature dataset. Daytime and nighttime data were averaged weekly using data with a quality flag of 4 or better. This level is a commonly accepted cutoff for "good" data (Kilpatrick et al., 2001, Casey and Cornillon, 1999). Previous versions of CoRTAD (versions 1-3) also incorporated pixels up to 5 degrees warmer than a course resolution reference SST based on the Reynolds Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (Weekly, 1-degree OISST version 2.0). Since Pathfinder Version 5.2 already uses a finer resolution reference field (25 km Daily OISST) this additional step was not incorporated here in CoRTAD Version 5, or in the previous CoRTAD Version 4 (Casey et al., 2012). These processes resulted in a weekly SST dataset that is roughly 80% gap free. To create a gap-free dataset for analysis, 3 x 3 pixel median spatial fill was used. A temporal fill was then performed using the nonlinear least squares data fitting (Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm) in SLATEC Common Mathematical Library (in public domain) to fill the remaining gaps. This conservative approach was chosen because it provided interpolated SSTs that are bounded by the nearest available values in time. It also used data from only a very limited spatial domain, which is an important consideration given the variability of coral reef environments. Using these gap-filled data, we then created site-specific climatologies for each reef grid cell to describe long-term temperature patterns over the 31-year dataset. The climatology was generated using a harmonic analysis procedure that fits annual and semi-annual signals to the time series of weekly SSTs at each grid cell: climSST(t) = A*cos(2pi*t + B) + C*cos(4pi*t + D) + E (1) where t is time, A and B are coefficients representing the annual amplitude and phase, C and D are the semi-annual amplitude and phase, and E is the long-term temperature mean. Others have used similar approaches for generating climatologies because they are more robust than simple averaging techniques, which can be more susceptible to data gaps from periods of cloudiness (Podesta et al., 1991, Mesias et al., 2007). Please note in both CoRTAD Versions 4 and 5, a gap exists in the Pathfinder 5.2 dataset from 1994 day 275 to 1995 day 17 since Level 1B GAC data from NOAA-9 is not available from the NOAA archives. For these 3.5 months SST has been interpolated from Pathfinder 5.0 and 0.17K is subtracted to transform the data to the skin temperature basis of Pathfinder Version 5.2. In CoRTAD Version 5, the data are not stored in separate geographic tiles like in Version 4 and earlier. Instead, each data file contains the entire global coverage for a related grouping of CoRTAD parameters. Following are the version changes at glance: Version 5, 1982-01-02 - 2012-12-28, Global 4320x8640x1617 netCDF-4.1.2 Version 4, 1981-10-31 - 2010-12-31, Global 4320x8640, Tile 540x540, netCDF-4 Classic Version 3, 1982-01-01 - 2009-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF5 Version 2, 1982-01-01 - 2008-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF5 Version 1, 1985-01-01 - 2005-12-31, Global 4096x8192, Tile 512x512, HDF4 NODC Accession Numbers: v3 0068999; v2 0054501; v1 0044419
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                orderingInstructions:  Contact NCEI for other distribution options and instructions.
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                description:  NCEI Accession 0126774 v1.1 was published.
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                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
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                code:  AVHRR-2
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            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-2 The AVHRR-2 is a multi purpose imaging instrument used for global measurement of cloud cover, sea surface temperature, ice, snow and vegetation cover and characteristics. This instrument was initially carried on NOAA-7 (launched June 1981) and was last flown on NOAA-14 which was decommissioned in 2005. This 5-channel radiometer covering 2 visible and 3 thermal infrared between 0.63 and 12.0 micrometers, has an instantaneous footprint of 1.1 km at the sub satellite point. Additional Information: https://nwpsaf.eu/deliverables/aapp/avhrr_2.html
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                code:  AVHRR-3
            type:  AVHRR-3
            description:  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-3 The AVHRR-3 is a six channel scanning radiometer providing 3 solar channels in the visible-near infrared region and 3 thermal infrared channels. The AVHRR-3 has two one-micrometer wide channels between 10.3 and 12.5 micrometers. This latest version of AVHRR was first carried on NOAA-15 launched in May 1998 and subsequently in all current NOAA and MetOp platforms. Measuring the same view, this array of diverse wavelengths, after processing, permits multi spectral analysis for more precisely defining hydrologic, oceanographic, and meteorological parameters. Comparison of data from two channels is often used to observe features or measure various environmental parameters. The three channels operating entirely within the infrared band are used to detect the heat radiation from and hence, the temperature of land, water, sea surfaces, and the clouds above them. Additional Information: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pod-guide/ncdc/docs/klm/html/c3/sec3-1.htm
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-11
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/333 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument:  #inst_be0e
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-14
            description: https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/336 Instruments: AVHRR/2 et al
            instrument:  #inst_be0e
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-16
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-16 from United States. Name NOAA-16 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2000 Decommissioned Date 2014 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched September 2000. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information Source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/338 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument:  #inst_be0f
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-17
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-17 from United States. Name NOAA-17 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2002 Decommissioned Date 2013 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched June 2002. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/339 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument:  #inst_be0f
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-18
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-18 from United States. Name NOAA-18 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2005 Decommissioned Date 2016 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched May 2005 as NOAA-N. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Pathfinder project. Instruments: AVHRR/3 et al Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/340 Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument:  #inst_be0f
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-19
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-15 from United States. Name NOAA-19 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Native Name Synonyms Call Sign MMSI IMO Pennant Title Commissioned Date 2009 Decommissioned Date 2016 Notes Polar-orbiting environmental satellite launched February 2009 as NOAA-N Prime. The NODC has archived AVHRR SST data collected from this platform as part of the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Project. Additional information: Main body: 4.2m (13.75 ft) long, 1.88m (6.2 ft) diameter Solar array: 2.73m (8.96 ft) by 6.14m (20.16 ft) Weight at Liftoff: 1419.8 kg (3130 pounds) including 4.1 kg of gaseous nitrogen Launch Vehicle: Delta-II 7320-10 Space Launch Vehicle Launch Date: February 06, 2009 Vandenburg Air Force Base, CA Orbital information: Type: sun synchronous Altitude: 870 km Period: 102.14 minutes Inclination: 98.730 degrees Sensors: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/4) Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectral radiometer (SBUV/2) Space Environment Monitor (SEM/2) Search and Rescue (SAR) Repeater and Processor Advance Data Collection System (ADCS) Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/341 http://noaasis.noaa.gov/NOAASIS/ml/genlsatl.html Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-07-17.
            instrument:  #inst_be0f
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-7
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-7 from UNITED STATES. Name NOAA-7 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Commissioned Date 1981-06-23 Decommissioned Date 1986-06-07 Notes Selected global data available from NOAA. Significant contribution to Space weather and operational meteorology. Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/329 All known Instruments flying on NOAA-7 Acronym - Full name Argos - Argos Data Collection System AVHRR/2 - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer / 2 HIRS/2 - High-resolution Infra Red Sounder / 2 MSU - Microwave Sounding Unit SSU - Stratospheric Sounding Unit SEM/MEPED - SEM / Medium energy proton detector SEM/TED - SEM / Total Energy Detector Submitted to ICES on 2018-07-17. Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08.
            instrument:  #inst_be0e
        platform:  (MI_Platform)
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  NOAA-9
            description:  Updated information from ICES for the platform NOAA-9 from UNITED STATES. Name NOAA-9 Country(s) US: UNITED STATES Platform Class 65: Orbiting satellite Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08. Commissioned Date 1984-12-12 Decommissioned Date 1998-02-13 Notes Selected global operational meteorology data available from NOAA. Significant contribution to Atmospheric chemistry and Space weather. All known Instruments flying on NOAA-9 Acronym - Full name Argos - Argos Data Collection System AVHRR/2 - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer / 2 ERBE - Earth Radiation Budget Experiment HIRS/2 - High-resolution Infra Red Sounder / 2 MSU - Microwave Sounding Unit S&RSAT - Search & Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking System SBUV/2 - Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet / 2 SSU - Stratospheric Sounding Unit SEM/MEPED - SEM / Medium energy proton detector SEM/TED - SEM / Total Energy Detector Information source (URL) https://www.wmo-sat.info/oscar/satellites/view/331 Submitted to ICES on 2018-07-17. Confirmed by NOAA on 2018-08-08.
            instrument:  #inst_be0e