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NOAA Merged Land Ocean Global Surface Temperature Analysis

The NOAA Merged Land Ocean Global Surface Temperature Analysis (NOAAGlobalTemp, formerly known as MLOST) combines long-term sea surface (water) temperature (SST) and land surface (air) temperature datasets to create a complete, accurate depiction of global temperature trends. The dataset is used to support climate monitoring activities such as the Monthly Global Climate Assessment, and also provides input data for a number of climate models.

Methodology

To achieve global temperature coverage, NOAAGlobalTemp combines the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) with a land surface air temperature dataset that uses data from the Global Historical Climatology Network monthly (GHCNm) database. Data is available as a series of temperature anomalies relative to a 1971–2000 monthly climatology, following the World Meteorological organization convention.

Version 5

Updates

Version 5 incorporates upgraded versions of ERSST and GHCN-M for increased land and ocean spatial coverage, and improved treatment of historical changes in observing practice.

Input Datasets
  • ERSST v5
  • GHCNm v4

Data

Gridded

Monthly data are available in netCDF format, from which data can also be downloaded in ASCII format on THREDDS.

Global Gridded 5° Data

Time Series

Monthly and annual land–ocean temperature time series as well as land-only and ocean-only time series are available from 1880 to present for several zonal bands.

ASCII Time Series

Climate at a Glance

This interactive tool provides global charts and graphics using NOAAGlobalTemp data.

Launch Climate at a Glance

Paper Citation

  • Huang, B., M. J. Menne, T. Boyer, E. Freeman, B. E. Gleason, J. H. Lawrimore, C. Liu, J. J. Rennie, C. Schreck, F. Sun, R. Vose, C. N. Williams, X. Yin, H.-M. Zhang, 2020: Uncertainty estimates for sea surface temperature and land surface air temperature in NOAAGlobalTemp version 5. , J. Climate, 33, 1351-1379, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0395.1.
  • Zhang, Huai-Min, Jay H. Lawrimore, Boyin Huang, Matthew J. Menne, Xungang Yin, Ahira Sȧnchez-Lugo, Byron E. Gleason, Russell Vose, Derek Arndt, J. Jared Rennie, and Claude N. Williams. (2019) "Updated Temperature Data Give a Sharper View of Climate Trends." Eos, 100, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EO128229. Published on 19 July 2019.

Data Citation

Zhang, H.-M., B. Huang, J. Lawrimore, M. Menne, Thomas M. Smith, NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp), Version 5 [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.25921/9qth-2p70 [access date].

Version 4

Input Datasets

  • ERSST v4
  • GHCN-M v3.3.0

Global Gridded 5° Data     ASCII Time Series

Data Citation

Zhang, H.-M., B. Huang, J. Lawrimore, M. Menne, Thomas M. Smith, NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp), Version 4.0 [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V5FN144H [access date].

Contact Info

Specifications

Data Sources: 
Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Global Historical Climatology Network monthly (GHCNm)

Spatial Coverage: 
5° × 5°

Time Frame: 
1880–Present

Resources

References

Smith, T.M., R.W. Reynolds, T.C. Peterson, and J. Lawrimore, 2008: Improvements to NOAA's historical merged land–ocean surface temperatures analysis (1880–2006); Journal of Climate, 21, 2283–2296, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI2100.1.

Vose, R.S., D. Arndt, V.F. Banzon, D.R. Easterling, B. Gleason, B. Huang, E. Kearns, J.H. Lawrimore, M.J. Menne, T.C. Peterson, R.W. Reynolds, T.M. Smith, C.N. Williams, Jr., and D.L. Wuertz, 2012: NOAA's merged land-ocean surface temperature analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, 1677–1685, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00241.1.

Zhang, Huai-Min, Jay H. Lawrimore, Boyin Huang, Matthew J. Menne, Xungang Yin, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, Byron E. Gleason, Russell Vose, Derek Arndt, J. Jared Rennie, Claude N. Williams, 2019: The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset Version 5: Employing Improved Data Coverage and Historical Homogenization. AGU Eos (in press).

Reference Citation: Zhang, Huai-Min, Jay H. Lawrimore, Boyin Huang, Matthew J. Menne, Xungang Yin, Ahira Sȧnchez-Lugo, Byron E. Gleason, Russell Vose, Derek Arndt, J. Jared Rennie, and Claude N. Williams. (2019) "Updated Temperature Data Give a Sharper View of Climate Trends." Eos, 100, doi:10.1029/2019EO128229. Published on 19 July 2019.

Cite dataset when used as a source. See the dataset's DOI landing page for citation details at doi:10.7289/V5FN144H.