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Ocean Climate Laboratory

 

The NCEI Ocean Climate Laboratory Team (OCL) works to improve NCEI's oceanographic data archives through scientific analyses, developing and improving annual, seasonal, and monthly ocean climatologies, investigating interannual-to-decadal ocean climate variability, building scientifically, quality-controlled global oceanographic databases, and facilitating international exchange of oceanographic data. 

The OCL includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Oceanography, Silver Spring. Operated under the auspices of the U.S. Academy of Sciences, WDC is one of the U.S. discipline subcenters within the World Data Center system. There are two other World Data Centers for Oceanography: World Data Center for Oceanography in Obninsk (Russia), and World Data Center for Oceanography in Tianjin (People's Republic of China).

The OCL directs the international Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue (GODAR) Project. Initiated by the NODC and WDC, this project was subsequently endorsed by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The GODAR Project has resulted in an increase of over eight million historical ocean temperature casts, 200,000 plankton casts, as well as many other data. All data are made available internationally without restriction consistent with the data policy of the World Data System
 

World Ocean Database

The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the largest collection of publicly available, uniformly formatted, quality controlled subsurface ocean profile data in the world. This powerful tool for oceanographic, climatic, and environmental research is the product of more than 20 years of coordinated efforts to incorporate holdings from scientific institutions, government agencies, individual researchers, and data recovery initiatives into a single database. WOD data spans from Captain Cook's 1772 voyage to the contemporary Argo period, making it a valuable resource for long term and historical ocean climate analysis.

World Ocean Database | WODSelect

World Ocean Atlas

The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) is a collection of objectively analyzed, quality controlled temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate means based on profile data from the World Ocean Database (WOD). It can be used to create boundary and/or initial conditions for a variety of ocean models, verify numerical simulations of the ocean, and corroborate satellite data. 

*Product incorporates data, figures, documentation, and citations for all WOA releases since 1994

World Ocean Atlas | WOASelect

Regional Climatologies

NCEI regional climatologies (RCs) are ocean climate analyses derived from the World Ocean Database (WOD) that provide detailed insight into the state and long-term variability of climatologically, economically, and ecologically important regions that substantially contribute to earth and ocean climate change. To improve scientific foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of these regions, NCEI develops high-resolution, quality-controlled, multidecadal RCs with annual, seasonal, and monthly means for temperature, salinity, and other variables found in the WOD.

Global Heat and Salt Content

This dataset incorporates data distribution figures for temperature and salinity observations, anomaly fields for 26 standard depths from the surface to 2000 m, heat content, and steric sea levels (thermosteric, halosteric, total). All fields, which are calculated using the World Ocean Database, can be used to monitor the time evolution of essential ocean variables and validate climate model simulations and other observations.

Global Ocean Heat and Salt Content

International Ocean Atlas and Information Series

Long term and historical climatological data from a variety oceanic and coastal regions around the world. 

International Ocean Atlas Series

Misc. Reports and Announcements

Unpublished Reports

  • Levitus, S., S. Sato, C. Maillard, N. Mikhailov, P. Caldwell, and H. Dooley, 2005: Building Ocean Profile-Plankton Databases for Climate and Ecosystem Research, NOAA Tech. Report NESDIS 117, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 29 pp.

  • Anonymous, 2003: Proceedings of the International GODAR Review Meeting: Abstracts. NOAA Tech. report NESDIS 113, Available from NODC (NODC.Services@noaa.gov),Silver Spring, MD, 48 pp.

  • Feely, R. A. and C. L. Sabine, 2002: A plan for data management of in situ large-scale oceanic carbon observations. NOAA OAR Special report, Contribution No. 2445 from the NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, For sale by the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA. 22161, 21 pp.

  • Tsurushima, N., K. Imai, Y. Nojiri, and P. Murphy, 2002: KNOT: Ocean Time-series Program in western North Pacific completes first phase. U.S. JGOFS News, 11, 11-13.

  • Conkright, M. E., 2000: DMTT focuses on availability and preservation of JGOFS data. U.S. JGOFS News,10, 14-15.

  • Mehta, V., E. Lindstrom, A. Busalacchi, T. Delworth, C. Deser, L.-L. Fu, J. Hansen, G. Lagerloef, K.-M. Lau, S. Levitus, G. Meehl, G. Mitchum, E. Sarachik, J. Susskind, W. White, 2000: Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on decadal Climate Variability. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 2983-2985.

  • Levitus, S., R. Gelfeld, M. E. Conkright, T. P. Boyer, D. Johnson, T. O' Brien, C. Stephens, C. Forgy, O. Baranova, I. Smolyar, G. Trammell, R. Moffatt, 2000: Results of the NODC and IOC Data Archaeology and Rescue projects. Key to Oceanographic Records Documentation No. 19, National Oceanographic Data Center, Wash., D.C., 19 pp., 7 tables, 16 figs.

  • Paulette Murphy, P.,Y. Nojiri, and C. S. Wong, 2000: Extensive new CO2 data in the North Pacific from the Volunteer Observing Ship SKAUGRAN. U.S. JGOFS News,10, 8-9.

  • Levitus, S., J. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, 1999: Interannual-to-decadal variability of the temperature-salinity structure of the world ocean: How deep and where do we need to measure?, in Proceedings of the Conference on the Ocean Observing System for Climate, Saint Raphael, France.

  • Legler, D., P. Freitag, P. Holliday, B. Kelley, S. Levitus, and R. Wilson, 1999: in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Ocean Observing System for Climate, Saint Raphael, France.

  • Moffatt, R.E., 1998: A 40-Year History of Service to the International Scientific Community, in Catalogue of Data and Report of Data Exchange, 1997. WDC-A for Oceanography, Silver Spring, MD, pp. 7-29.

  • Isayev, G., 1997: Ocean Modeling, 113, Oxford Univ., England, pp. 3-7.

  • NOAA, 1997: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Oceanographic Biological and Chemical data Management. NOAA Tech. Report NESDIS 87, Wash., D.C., 224 pp. (Available from NODC, Silver Spring, MD)

  • Belkin, I.M., 1995: Experimental exploration of the Southern Ocean, in: National Report to the IAPSO of the IUGG, presented to the XXI General Assembly of the IUGG, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 96-106.

  • Belkin, I.M., 1995: Remote sensing and in situ observations of subtropical fronts, In: Proceeding of the COSPAR Colloquium "Space Remote Sensing of Subtropical Oceans", September 12-16, 1995, Taipei, Taiwan, 14B31-14B35.

  • Isayev, G., 1995: Towards a local diagnostic method. Ocean Modeling, 107, Oxford Univ., England, pp. 1-5.

  • Conkright, M. and S. Levitus, 1994: Quality control and analysis of historical nutrient data in the Indian Ocean. Proceedings from workshop held at Sebastopol, Ukraine.

  • Conkright, M., S. Levitus, T. Boyer, D.M. Bartolacci, and M.E. Luther, 1994: Atlas of the Northern Indian Ocean. Available from, Marine Science Department, U. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Florida.   Online reprint pdf (9.9 MB)

  • da Silva, A.M., C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Toward a revised Beaufort equivalent scale. Proceedings from the COADS Winds Workshop held in Kiel, Germany, 1994.

  • Isayev, G., 1994: Absolute velocity as a function of standard observed data and their first derivatives. Ocean Modeling, 102, Oxford Univ., England, pp. 12-15.

  • Levitus, S., R. Gelfeld, T. Boyer, and D. Johnson, 1994: Results of the NODC and IOC Data Archaeology and Rescue projects. Key to Oceanographic Records Documentation No. 19, National Oceanographic Data Center, Wash., D.C., 67 pp.

  • Young, C., A. da Silva, and S. Levitus, 1994: The effect of a revised Beaufort scale on momentum and heat fluxes over the global oceans. Proceedings from the COADS Winds Workshop held in Kiel, Germany, 1994.

  • Isayev G., and S. Levitus, 1993: The North Atlantic Absolute Circulation: Climatology and Change between 1950's and 1970's. Univ. Maryland tech. report.

  • Young, C., A. da Silva, and S. Levitus, 1993: Monthly distribution of SST observations in COADS: 1945-89. Univ. Wisconsin-Milwaukee Dept. of Geosciences Tech. Report 93.01

  • Levitus, S. and R. Gelfeld, 1992: National Oceanographic Data Center Inventory of Oceanographic Profiles: Global Distributions by Year for All Countries. Key to Oceanographic Records Documentation No. 18, 242 pp.

  • Levitus, S., 1991: Systematic errors in expendable bathythermograph measurements and their impact on ocean climate change studies. Workshop on the Quality and Continuity of Environmental Data. April 11-12, 1991, Silver Spring. Md. ESDIM Project Office.

  • Levitus, S., 1990: Temporal variability of steric sea level of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1970-74 versus 1955-59. In, Towards an Integrated System for Measuring Long Term Changes in Global Sea Level; Report of a Workshop held at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Wash., D.C., 11-16.

Announcements

  • Levitus, S. and John Antonov, 2012: Ocean heat and salt content Earth System Monitor, 19(1), 4.

  • Anonymous, 2009: World Ocean Database. EOS, 90(49).

  • Anonymous, 2007: World Ocean Database Expended. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88(1), p. 21.

  • Levitus, S., T. Boyer, H. Garcia, R. Locarnini, and A. Mishonov, 2007: World Ocean Atlas 2005 presents new ocean climatologies. Earth System Monitor, 16(2), 10.

  • Levitus, S., T. Boyer, H. Garcia, R. Locarnini, I. Smolyar, A. Mishonov, D. Johnson, and J. Antonov, 2006: World Ocean Database 2005 now available. Earth System Monitor, 15(1).

  • Smolyar, I., S. Levitus, R. Tatusko, 2003: Oceanographic database for the study of the Arctic climatic system. NOAA Earth System Monitor, 13(4).

  • Smolyar, I., P. Makarevich, S. Timofeev, and A. Zuyev, 2000: Biological atlas of the Barents and Kara Seas. NOAA Earth System Monitor, 11(2).

  • Matishov, G. G., V. V. Denisov, A. N. Zuyev, V. A. Golubev, N.M. Adrov, S. Levitus, I. V. Smolyar, 1999: Climatic Atlas of the Barents Sea. Doklady Earth Sciences (English translation of Doklady Akademii Nauk, Russia), 366 (5),692-694

  • NODC, 1999: Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994 (UWM/COADS). NODC Environmental Information Bulletin 99-1.

  • NODC, 1999: Wolrd Ocean Atlas 1998 and World Ocean Atlas 1998 Figures. NODC Environmental Information Bulletin 99-3.

  • NODC, 1998: World Ocean Database 1998: CD-ROM Scientific Data Sets. NODC Environmental Information Bulletin 98-1.

  • Young-Molling, C., A. da Silva, and S. Levitus, 1998: New volumes planned for release in the Atlas of Surface marine Data series. NOAA Earth System Monitor, 8(3).

  • Conkright, M.E., T.P. Boyer, G.I. Monterey, J. Antonov, and S. Levitus, 1996: Future products in the World Ocean Atlas 1994 series. NOAA Earth System Monitor, 7(2).

  • Anonymous, 1995a: New GODAR product available, UNESCO, IMS Newsletter No. 73-74,p. 11.

  • Anonymous, 1995b: New GODAR product available, EOS Transactions, Section News, 76(34), p. 339.

  • Anonymous, 1995c: Atlas of the World's Oceans on CD-ROM, Scientific Computing, Issue 13 November 1995.

  • Levitus, S., M.E.Conkright, R. Gelfeld, and T.P. Boyer, 1995: World Ocean Atlas 1994 and CD-ROM Data Sets. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., p. 405.

  • Gelfeld, R., and H. Dooley, 1994: Old Sea Data Help Scientists Today. ICES CIEM Information Newsletter, No. 24,p. 9.

  • Levitus, S., M.E.Conkright, R. Gelfeld, and T.P. Boyer, 1994: World Ocean Atlas 1994. Global Change Newsletter, No. 20, pp 4-6.

  • Levitus, S., M.E. Conkright, R. Gelfeld, T.P. Boyer, 1994: World Ocean Atlas presents new Ocean climatologies. NOAA Earth System Monitor, 5(2).

  • Levitus, S., and R. Gelfeld, 1993: Oceanographic data archaeology project receives international support. NOAA Earth System Monitor,(2).

  • Levitus, S. and R. Gelfeld, 1993: Oceanographic data archaeology project receives international support. UNESCO, IMS Newsletter, No. 67, pp. 4-5.

  • Levitus, S., R. Gelfeld, L. Stathoplos, and M.E. Conkright, 1993: Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue Project is Underway. U.S. JGOFS News, 5(2).

World Data Center for Oceanopgraphy

  • WDC for Oceanography, 2003: Catalogue of Data and Report of Data Exchange 2000-2001.   Online reprint pdf 

  • WDC for Oceanography, 2000: Catalogue of Data and Report of Data Exchange 1999.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1999: Catalogue of Data and Report of Data Exchange 1998.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1998: Catalogue of Data and Report of Data Exchange 1997.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1997: Catalogue of Data and Report of Data Exchange 1996.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1996: Catalogue of Data and Report of Data Exchange 1994-1995.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1994: Change Notice Nos. 52 and 53 to the Catalogue of Data.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1994: Oceanographic Data Exchange, 1993.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1993: Oceanographic Data Exchange, 1992.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1993: Change Notice Nos. 50 and 51 to the Catalogue of Data.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1993: Supplement No. 21 to the Catalogue of Accessioned Publications, 1991-1992.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1992: Change Notice Nos. 48 and 49 to the Catalogue of Data.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1992: Oceanographic Data Exchange, 1991.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1991: Oceanographic Data Exchange, 1990.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1991: Change Notice Nos. 46 and 47 to the Catalogue of Data.

  • WDC-A, Oceanography, 1991: Supplement No. 20 to the Catalogue of Accessioned Publications, 1989-1990.

Workshop Reports for the Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue Project

  • IOC, 2003: International Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue (GODAR) Review Conference. IOC Workshop Report 178. Silver Spring, MD, USA, July 1999, 41 pp., 2 Annexes.   Online reprint pdf (0.4 MB)

  • IOC, 1997: IOC-ICSU-NOAA Regional Workshop for Member States of the Caribbean and South America-GODAR V (Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue Project). IOC Workshop Report 127. Cartagena de Indias, Colombia 8-11 October 1996, 46 pp.

  • IOC, 1997: IOC-ICSU-NOAA Regional Workshop for Member States of West Africa-GODAR IV (Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue Project). IOC Workshop Report 136. Accra Ghana, March 1997, 70 pp.

  • IOC, 1996: IOC-EU-BSH-NOAA International Workshop on Oceanographic Biological and Chemical Data Management. IOC Workshop Report 122. Gamburg, Germany, 20-23 May 1996, 70 pp.   Online reprint pdf (0.1 MB)

  • IOC, 1995: IOC-ICSU-NOAA Regional Workshop for Member States of the Mediterranean Sea-GODAR IV (Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue Project). IOC Workshop Report 110. University of Malta, Foundation for International Studies, Valletta, Malta, 25-28 April, 1995.

  • IOC, 1994a: IOC-SOA-NOA Regional Workshop for Member States of the western Pacific-GODAR II (Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue project). IOC Workshop Report 100. World Data Centre D, Oceanography, Tianjin, China, 8-11 March, 1994.

  • IOC, 1994b: IOC-ICSU-NIO-NOAA Regional Workshop for Member States of the Indian Ocean-GODAR III (Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue Project. IOC Workshop Report 107. Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre, Dona Paula, Goa, India, 6-9 December, 1994.

  • IOC, 1993: IOC-CEC-ICSU-ICES Regional Workshop for Member States of Eastern and Northern Europe (Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue [GODAR] Project. IOC Workshop Report 88. WDC-B, Oceanography Obninsk, Russia, 17-20 May 1993.

  • 1992: Proceedings of the Ocean Climate Data Workshop. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 18-21 February.   Online reprint pdf (76.7 MB)

  • 1988: Final Report of the NODC/ERL Workshop on Ocean Data Files. National Oceanographic Data Center, Wash., D.C., 13-14 June.   Online reprint pdf (23.4 MB)

 

Scientific Journal Publications

Seidov, D., A. Mishonov, J. Reagan, and R. Parsons (2017) : Multidecadal variability and climate shift in the North Atlantic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 49854993; doi:10.1002/2017GL073644.

Garcia, H.E., C. Cosca, A. Kozyr, E. Mayorga, C. Chandler, R.W. Thomas, K. OBrien, W. Appeltans, S. Hankin, J.A. Newton, A. Gutierrez, J.-P. Gattuso, L. Hansson, M. Zweng, and B. Pfeil, 2015 : Data management strategy to improve global use of ocean acidification data and information, Oceanography, v 28, n 2, p. 226-228; doi 10.5670/oceanog.2015.45, Online reprint pdf*.

Seidov, D., J. I. Antonov, K. M. Arzayus, O. K. Baranova, M. Biddle, T. P. Boyer, D. R. Johnson, A. V. Mishonov, C. Paver and M. M. Zweng, 2015 : Oceanography North of 600N from World Ocean Database, Progress in Oceanography, v 132, p. 153-173; doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.02.003*, Special Issue of Progress in Oceanography

Yashayaev, I., D. Seidov and E. Demirov, 2015 : A new collective view of oceanography of the Arctic and North Atlantic basins, Progress in Oceanography, v 132, p. 1-21; doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.12.012, Special Issue of Progress in Oceanography

Yashayaev, I. and D. Seidov, 2015 : The role of the Atlantic Water in multidecadal ocean variability in the Nordic and Barents Seas, Progress in Oceanography, v 132, p. 68-127; doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.11.009, Special Issue of Progress in Oceanography

Boyer, T.P., H. E. Garcia, R. A. Locarnini, M. M. Zweng, A. V. Mishonov, J. R. Reagan, J. I. Antonov, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Biddle, D. R. Johnson and C. R. Paver, 2014 : 2013 World Ocean Atlas Aids High-Resolution Climate Studies, Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 95, 41, 369-370, doi:10.1002/2014EO410002. Online reprint pdf*

Boyer, T., J. Antonov, J. Reagan, C. Schmid, and R. Locarnini, 2014 : [Subsurface salinity] Global Oceans [in State of the Climate in 2013], Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 95, S62-S65, doi:10.1175/2014BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

Cheng, L., Zhu, J., R. Cowley, T. Boyer, and S. Wijffels, 2014 : Time, probe type, and temperature variable bias corrections to historical expendable bathythermograph observations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 31, 17931825., doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00197.1

Johnson, G. C., J. M. Lyman, J. K. Willis, T. Boyer, J. Antonov, S. A. Good, C. M. Domingues, and N. Bindoff, 2014 : [Ocean Heat Content] Global Oceans [in State of the Climate in 2013]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 95 (7), 54-57.

Reagan, J., T. Boyer, J. Antonov, and M. Zweng, 2014 : Comparison analysis between Aquarius sea surface salinity and World Ocean Database in situ analyzed sea surface salinity, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 81228140, doi:10.1002/2014JC009961.

Xie, T., T. Boyer, E. Bayler, Y. Xue, D. Byrne, J. Reagan, R. Locarnini, F. Sun, R. Joyce, and A. Kumar, 2014 : An in situ - satellite blended analysis of global sea surface salinity. J. Geophy. Res. Oceans, 119, 6140 - 6160, doi:10.1002/2014JC010046. Online reprint pdf (5.2 MB).

Abraham, J.P., M. Baringer, N.L. Bindoff, T. Boyer, L.J. Cheng, J.A. Church, J.L. Conroy, C.M. Domingues, J.T. Fasullo, J. Gilson, G. Goni, S.A. Good, J. M. Gorman, V. Gouretski, M. Ishii, G.C. Johnson, S. Kizu, J.M. Lyman, A. M. Macdonald, W.J. Minkowycz, S.E. Moffitt, M.D. Palmer, A.R. Piola, F. Reseghetti, K. Schuckmann,K.E. Trenberth, I. Velicogna, J.K. Willis, 2013 : A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change. Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 51, pp 450-483 available online*

Johnson, G. C., J. M. Lyman, J. K. Willis, S. Levitus, T. Boyer, J. Antonov, S. A. Good, C. M. Domingues, S. Wijffels, and N. Bindoff, 2013 : [Ocean Heat Content] Global Oceans [in State of the Climate in 2012]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 94 (8), 50-53.

Kurian, N., M. Lengaigne, G.V. Vissa, J. Vialard, S. Pous, A.-C. Peter, F. Durand, S. Naik, 2013 : Processes of India's offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability. Ocean Dyn. , doi:10.1007/s10236-013-0604-6

Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, O. K. Baranova, T. P. Boyer, C. L. Coleman, H. E. Garcia, A. I. Grodsky, D. R. Johnson, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. R. Reagan, C. L. Sazama, D. Seidov, I. Smolyar, E. S. Yarosh, and M. M. Zweng, 2013 : The World Ocean Database In, Special Issue of the Proceedings of the 1st WDS Conference in Kyoto, 3 - 6 September 2011, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Data Science Journal , v.3, 229-234, available online*

Levitus, S., G. Matishov, I. Smolyar, O. K Baranova, M. M. Zweng, T. Tielking, N. Mikhailov, S. Kizu, F. Nast, G. Reed, R. Keeley, L. Rickards, A. Korablev, 2013: World War II (1939-1945) Oceanographic Observations. Data Science Journal , 12, 102-157. Available online pdf*

Gleckler, P. J., B. D. Santer, C. M. Domingues, D. W. Pierce, T. P. Barnett, J. A. Church, K. E. Taylor, K. M. AchutaRao, T. Boyer, M. Ishii and P. M. Caldwell, 2012 : Human-induced global ocean warming on multidecadal timescales. Nature Climate Change, Nature Climate Change, published online, , doi:10.1038/nclimate1553

Gouretski, V., J. Kennedy, A. Kohl, T. Boyer, 2012 : Consistent near-surface ocean warming since 1900 in two largely independent observing networks, Geophys. Res. Lett. , 39, L19606, doi:10.1029/2012GL052975.

Levitus, S., 2012 : Sea level change results from the IPCC 2007 Report and subsequent results, In Sea level rise and coastal infrastructure: Prediction, risks, and solutions, American Society of Civil Engineers Council on Disaster Risk Management , Monograph No. 6, eds. B. M. Ayyub and M. S. Kearney, 20-27.

Boyer, T.P., Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, J. R. Reagan, C. Schmid, and R. Locarnini, 2012: [Subsurface salinity] Global Oceans [in State of the Climate in 2011]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 93 (7), S72-S75.

Levitus, S., G. Matishov, I. Smolyar, O. K Baranova, M. M. Zweng, T. Tielking, N. Mikhailov, S. Kizu, F. Nast, G. Reed, R. Keeley, L. Rickards, A. Korablev, 2013: World War II (1939-1945) Oceanographic Observations. Data Science Journal , 12, 102-157. Available online pdf*

Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, O. K. Baranova, H. E. Garcia, R. A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, J. R. Reagan, D. Seidov, E. S. Yarosh, M. M. Zweng, 2012: World Ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0-2000 m) 1955-2010. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 39, L10603, doi:10.1029/2012GL051106. Online version, data access, pdf

Xue, Y., M. A. Balmaseda, T. Boyer, N. Ferry, S. Good, I. Ishikawa, A. Kumar, M. Rienecker, A.J. Rosati, and Y. Yin, 2012 : A comparative analysis of upper-ocean heat content variability from an ensemble of operational ocean reanalyses. J. Climate , 6905-6929, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00542.1.

Boyer, T. P., V. V. Gopalakrishna, F. Reseghetti, A. Naik, V. Suneel, M. Ravichandran, N. P. Mohammed Ali, M. M. Rafeeq, and R. A. Chico, 2011 : Investigation of XBT and XCTD biases in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal with implications for climate studies, J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech. , 28, doi:10.1175/2010JTECHO784.1, 266-286.

Giese, B. S., G. A. Chepurin, J. A. Carton, T. P. Boyer, and H. F. Seidel. 2011 : Impact of Bathythermograph Temperature Bias Models on an Ocean Reanalysis, J. Clim. , 24, 84-93.

Johnson, G.C., J. M. Lyman, J. K. Willis, S. Levitus, T. Boyer, J. Antonov, 2011 : Ocean heat content, Global Oceans (in State of the Climate in 2010). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 92 (6), 81-84.

Levitus, S., J. Antonov, T. Boyer, J. Reagan, C. Schmid, 2011 : Subsurface salinity, Global Oceans (in State of the Climate in 2010). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 92 (6), 88-92.

Auladell, M., J. L. Pelegri, A. Garcia-Olivares, A. D. Kirwan, B. L. Lipphardt, J. M. Martin, A. Pascual, P. Sangra, and M. Zweng, 2010: Modelling the early evolution of a Loop Current ring, J. Mar. Syst, , 80 (3-4), 160-171.

Glover, D. M., P. H. Wiebe, and C. L. Chandler, and S. Levitus, 2010: IOC Contributions to International, Interdisciplinary Open Data Sharing. Oceanography , 23 (3), 97-107. Online reprint pdf

Gopalakrishna, V.V., F. Durand, K. Nisha, M. Lengaigne, T.P. Boyer, J. Costa, R.R. Rao, M. Ravichandran, S. Amrithash, L. John, K. Girish, C. Ravichandran, V. Suneel, 2010: Observed intra-seasonal to interannual variability of the upper ocean thermal structure in the southeastern Arabian Sea during 2002-2008, Deep-Sea Res. I , doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.03.010

Palmer, M. D., Antonov, J., Barker, P., Bindoff, N., Boyer, T., Carson, M., Domingues, C. M., Gille, S., Gleckler, P., Good, S., Gouretski, V., Guinehut, S., Haines, K., Harrison, D.E., Ishii, M., Johnson, G. C., Levitus, S., Lozier, M. S., Lyman, J. M., Meijers, A., von Schuckmann, K., Smith, d., Wijffels, S., Willis, J., 2010: Future observations for monitoring global ocean heat content. In Proceedings of OceanObs09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2) , Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009 Hall, J., Harrison, D. E. & Stammer, D., Eds. ESA WPP 306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp68. Online reprint pdf*

Helber, R. W., A. B. Kara, C. N. Barron, and T. P. Boyer, 2009: Mixed layer depth in the Aegean, Marmara, Black and Azov Seas: Part II: Relation to the sonic layer depth. J. Mar. Sys., 78:S181-S190.

Kara, A. B., R. W. Helber, T. P. Boyer, and J. B. Elsner, 2009: Mixed layer depth in the Aegean, Marmara, Black and Azov Seas: Part I: General features. J. Mar. Sys., 78:S169-S180.

Kara, A.B., C.N. Barron, and T.P. Boyer, 2009: Evaluations of SST climatologies in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C02021, doi:10.1029/2008JC004909

Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, R.A. Locarnini, H.E. Garcia, and A.V. Mishonov, 2009: Global Ocean Heat Content 1955-2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 36, L07608, doi:10.1029/2008GL037155. Online version, data access

Levitus, S., G. Matishov, D. Seidov, I. Smolyar, 2009: Barents Sea Multidecadal Variability Geophys. Res. Lett. , 36, L19604, doi:10.1029/2009GL039847.

Peterson, T. C, et. al., 2009: State of the Climate in 2008. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Society, 90, S13-+.

Son, Y. B., W.D. Gardner, A.V. Mishonov, and M.J. Richardson, 2009: Multispectral remote sensing algorithms for particulate organic carbon (POC): the Gulf of Mexico, Remote Sensing of the Environment, 113, 50-61.

Son, Y. B., W.D. Gardner, A.V. Mishonov, and M.J. Richardson, 2009: Model-based remote sensing algorithms for particulate organic carbon (POC) in the North-eastern Gulf of Mexico, J. Earth Sys. Sci., 118 (1), 1-10.

Haupt, B.J., and D. Seidov, 2008: The Miocene Climate at 20 and 14 Ma: A model study with the focus on freshwater, EOS Trans. AGU. Fall Meet Suppl. , 89 (7), Abstract PP11A-1370

Karageorgis, A.P., W.D. Gardner, D.Georgopoulos, A.V. Mishonov, E.Krasakopoulou and C. Anagnostou, 2008: Particle dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: A synthesis based on light transmission, PMC, and POC archives (1991-2001), Deep-Sea Res., 55(2):177-202. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.11.002

Lipphardt, B. L., A. C. Poje, A. D. Kirwan, L. Kantha, and M. Zweng, 2008: Death of three Loop Current rings. J. Mar. Res, 66 (1), 25-60.

Matishov, G. G., D. G. Matishov, S. V. Berdnikov, V. V. Sorokina, S. Levitus, I. V. Smolyar, 2008: Secular climate fluctuations in the Sea of Azov region (based on thermohaline data over 120 years. Doklady Earth Sciences, 422 (7),1101-1104.

Seidov, D., 2008: Heat transport, oceanic and atmospheric, in Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments, V. Gornitz (Ed.), pp. 407-409, Springer, NY.

Anonymous Bull. Amer. Meteor Soc.,88(1), p. 21

Bindoff, N.L., J. Willebrand, V. Artale, A. Cazenave, J. Gregory, S. Gulev, K. Hanawa, C. Le Quéré, S. Levitus, Y. Nojiri, C.K. Shum, L. D. Talley, and U. Unnikrishnan, 2007: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Maquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

Boyer, T., S. Levitus, J. Antonov, R. Locarnini, A. Mishonov, H. Garcia, and S. A. Josey, 2007: Changes in freshwater content in the North Atlantic Ocean 1955 - 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16603, doi:10.1029/2007GL030126

Haupt, B. J. and D. Seidov, 2007: Strengths and weaknesses of the global ocean conveyor: Inter-basin freshwater disparities as the major control. Prog. Oceanogr., 73, 358-369. Online reprint pdf

Jiao, N., Y. Zhang, Y. Zeng, W. D. Gardner, A. V. Mishonov, M. J. Richardson, N. Hong, D. Pan, Z.-H. Yan, Y.-H. Jo, C.-T. Arthur Chen, P. Wang, Y. Chen. H. Hong, Y. Bai, X. Chen, B. Huang, H. Deng, Y. Shi, D. Yang, 2007:Ecological anomalies in the East China Sea: Impacts of the Three Gorges Dam? Water Res., 41, p. 1287-1293. Online reprint pdf

Stouffer, R. J., D. Seidov, and B. J. Haupt, 2007: Climate Response to External Sources of Freshwater: North Atlantic versus the Southern Ocean. J. Clim., 20, 436-448. Online reprint pdf

Gardner, W.D., Mishonov, A.V., Richardson, M.J., 2006: Global POC concentrations from in-situ and satellite data. Deep-Sea Res. II., 53, 718-740, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.01.029.

Antonov, J. I., S. Levitus, and T. P. Boyer, 2005: Thermosteric sea level rise, 1955-2003. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023112. Online reprint pdf

Boyer, T.P., J. I. Antonov, S. Levitus, R. Locarnini, 2005: Linear trends of salinity for the World Ocean, 1955-1998. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32, L01604, doi:1029:2004GL021791. Online reprint pdf

Boyer, T., S. Levitus, H. Garcia, R. A. Locarnini, C. Stephens, J. Antonov, 2005: Objective analyses of annual, seasonal, and monthly temperature and salinity for the world ocean on a 0.25 degree grid. Int. J. Clim., 25, 931-945.

Garcia, H. E., T. P. Boyer, S. Levitus, R. A. Locarnini, and J. I. Antonov, 2005: Climatological annual cycle of upper ocean oxygen content anomaly. Geophys. Res. Lett. , V. 32, L09604, doi:10.1029/2004GL022286. Online reprint pdf

Garcia, H. E., T. P. Boyer, S. Levitus, R. A. Locarnini, and J. I. Antonov, 2005: On the variability of dissolved oxygen and apparent oxygen utilization content for the upper world ocean: 1955 to 1998. Geophys. Res. Lett. , L05611, doi:10.1029/2004GL021745. Online reprint pdf

Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, 2005: Warming of the World Ocean, 1955-2003. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32, L02604, doi:10.1029GL021592. Online reprint pdf

Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, and R. A. Locarnini, 2005: Linear trends of zonally averaged thermosteric, halosteric, and steric sea level changes for individual ocean basins and the world ocean, (1955-1959)-(1994-1998). Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16601, doi:1029/2005GL023761.

Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, and R. Locarnini, 2005: EOF analysis of upper ocean heat content, 1956-2003. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18607, doi:10.1029/2005GL023606.

Levitus, S., S. Sato, C. Maillard, N. Mikhailov, P. Caldwell, and H. Dooley, 2005: Building Ocean Profile-Plankton Databases for Climate and Ecosystem Research, NOAA Tech. Report NESDIS 117, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 29 pp. Online reprint pdf

Matishov, G. G., A.N. Zuev, V. A. Golubev, S. Levitus, I. Smolyar, 2005: Mega database on oceanography and biology of the western Arctic region, Doklady Earth Sciences, 401, 343-346.

Rixen, M., J.-M. Beckers, S. Levitus, J. Antonov, T. Boyer, C. Maillard, M. Fichaut, E. Balapoulos, S. Iona, H. Dooley, M.-J. Garcia, B. Manca, A. Giorgetti, G. Manzella, N. Mikhaolov, N. Pinardi, M. Zavatarelli, and the MEDAR Consortium, 2005. The western Mediterranean Deep water: A proxy for climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12608, doi:10.1029/2005GL022702.

Zawada, D. G., R. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, A. V. Mishonov, 2005: A comparison of hydrographically and optically derived mixed layer depths. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 110, C11001, doi:1029/2004JC002417.

Antonov, J. I., S. Levitus, T. P. Boyer , 2004: Climatological annual cycle of ocean heat content. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi:1029/2003GL018851 Online reprint pdf

Smolyar, I. V. and T. G. Bromage, 2004: Discrete model of fish scale incremental pattern: a formalization of the 2D anisotropic structure. ICES J. Mar. Sci., doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2004.07.013.

Conkright, M.E., W.W. Gregg, 2003: Comparison of chlorophyll climatologies: in situ, CZCS, blended in situ-CZCS, and SeaWiFS. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 24, 969-991

Gregg, W. W., M. E. Conkright, P. Ginoux, J. E. O' Reilly,N. W. Casey, 2003: Ocean primary production and climate: Global decadal changes, 30(15), doi:10.1029/2003GL016889.

Lueker, T., S. Walker, M. Vollmer, R. Keeling, C. Nevison, R. Weiss, H. Garcia, 2003: Coastal upwelling air-sea fluxes revealed in atmospheric observations of O2/N2, CO2, and N2O, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, doi:10.1029/2002GL016615

Oguma, S., T. Suzuki, S. Levitus, Y. Nagata, 2003: Skewed occurrence frequency of water temperature and salinity in the subarctic regions. J. Oceanogr., 59, 921-929

Smolyar, I., Adrov, N. 2003: The quantitative definition of the Barents Sea Atlantic Water: mapping of the annual climatic cycle and interannual variability, ICES J. of Marine Science, 60: 836-845 Online reprint pdf

Antonov J.I., S. Levitus and T. Boyer, 2002: Steric sea level variations during 1957-1994: Importance of salinity. J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans, 107, C12, 8013-8021 Online reprint pdf

Boyer, T. P. and S. Levitus, 2002: Harmonic analysis of climatological sea surface salinity. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 8006, doi: 10.1029/2001JC000829

Garcia M., I. Blade, A. Cruzado, Z. Velasquez, H. Garcia, J. Puigdefabregas, and J. Sospedra, 2002: Observed variability of water properties and transports on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment SR1b section across the Antarctic Circumpolar current. J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans, 107, C10 Online reprint pdf

Garcia, H. E., R. E. Keeling, 2001: On the global oxygen anomaly and air-sea flux. J. Geophys. Res. , 106, C12, 31155-31166. Online reprint pdf

Gregg, W. W., M. E. Conkright, 2001: Global seasonal climatologies of ocean chlorophyll: Blending in situ and satellite data for the Coastal Zone Color Scanner era. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. , 106, 2499-2515. Online reprint pdf

Levitus, S., J. Antonov, J. Wang, T. L. Delworth, K. W. Dixon, A. J. Broccoli,2001:Anthropogenic warming of earth's climate system. Science, 292, 267-270.

Murphy, P. P., Y. Nojiri, D. E. Harrison, 2001: Scales of spatial variability for ocean pCO2 in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea: toward a sampling strategy. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1047-1050.

Stephens, C., S. Levitus, J. Antonov, T.P. Boyer ,2001: On the Pacific Ocean regime shift. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 19, 3721-3724. Online reprint pdf

Conkright, M.E., W.W. Gregg, and S. Levitus, 2000: Seasonal cycle of phosphate in the open ocean. Deep-Sea Res.,I 47, 159-175.

Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, C. Stephens, 2000: Warming of the World Ocean. Science, 287, 2225-2229. Online reprint abstract, full text

Levitus, S., C. Stephens, J. Antonov, and T.P. Boyer, 2000: Yearly and year-season upper ocean temperature anomaly fields, 1948-1998. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 40. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 23 pp. Online reprint pdf

Loukos, H., F. Vivier, P. P. Murphy, D. E. Harrison, C. Le Quere, 2000: Interannual variability of equatorial Pacific CO2 fluxes estimated from temperature and salinity data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1735

Boyer, T.P., M. Conkright, and S. Levitus, 1999: Seasonal variability of dissolved oxygen and percent oxygen saturation in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Deep-Sea Res., 46, 1593-1613

Belkin, I.M., S. Levitus, J.I. Antonov, and S.-A. Malmberg, 1998: "Great Salinity Anomalies" in the North Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr.,1998,41(1),1-68.

Belkin, I., Levitus, S., Antonov, J., and S.-A. Malmberg, 1997: On the North Atlantic "Great Salinity Anomalies", ICES CM 1997/R:05, 42 pp.

Boyer, T.P., and S. Levitus, 1997: Objective Analyses of temperature and salinity for the world ocean on a 1/4 grid. NOAA/NESDIS Atlas 11. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 62 pp.

da Silva, A.M., C. C. Young-Molling, and S. Levitus, 1997: Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Suppl. B: Procedures for 1/2 x 1/2 data set. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 17. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 128 pp.

Levitus, S., G.I. Monterey, and T. Boyer, 1997: Seasonal Variability of Dynamic Height and its Fourier Analysis. NOAA NESDIS Atlas 15, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 9 pp. and 38 figs. Online reprint pdf

Levitus, S., and J. Antonov, 1997: Climatological and Interannual Variability of Temperature, Heat Storage, and Rate of Heat Storage in the Upper Ocean, NOAA NESDIS Atlas 16. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 6 pp., 186 figs.

Monterey, G.I., and Levitus, S., 1997: Seasonal Variability of Mixed Layer Depth for the World Ocean. NOAA NESDIS Atlas 14, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 5 pp. 87 figs. Online reprint pdf

Sackett, W.M., and M.E. Conkright, 1997: Summary and re-evaluation of the high temperature isotope geochemistry of methane. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 61, 1941-1952.

Smolyar, I., and N. Adrov, 1997: Annual and interannual cycles of the Atlantic Water in the Barents Sea.ICES CM,1997/R:12, 142p.

Young -Molling, C.C., A.M. da Silva, and S. Levitus, 1997: Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Vol. 6: Heat Flux Sensitivity to Sea Surface Temperature. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 12. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., pp. 103.

Young-Molling, C.C., A.M. da Silva, and S. Levitus, 1997: Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Suppl. A: Anomalies of Directly Observed Quantities and Surface Marine Fluxes for 1990-1993. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 13. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., 128 pp.

Zhang, R-H., and S. Levitus, 1997: Structure and cycle of decadal variability of upper ocean temperature in the North Pacific. J. Climate, 10, 710-727.

Zhang, R-H., and S. Levitus, 1997: Interannual variability of the coupled tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere system associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, J. Climate, 10, 1312-1330.

Belkin, I.M., and S. Levitus, 1996: Temporal variability of the Subarctic front Near the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans,101, 28317-28324.

Belkin, I.M., and A.L. Gordon ,1996: Southern Ocean fronts from the Greenwich Meridian to Tasmania, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans., 101, 3675-3696.

Levitus, S., and J. Antonov, X. Zhou, H. Dooley, K. Selemenov, V.Tereschenkov, 1996: Decadal-Scale Variability of the North Atlantic Ocean. Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales. National Academy of Sciences Press, 318-324.

Isayev, G., and S. Levitus, 1995: A diagnosis of the North Atlantic horizontal and vertical circulation with error estimates. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 100, 6795-6815.

Karl T.R., V.E. Derr, D.R. Easterling, C.K. Folland, D.J. Hofmann, S. Levitus, N. Nicholls, D.E. Parker, G. Withee, 1995: Critical Issues for Long-term Climate Monitoring. Climatic Change: Special Issue on Long-term Climate Monitoring, 31, 185-221.

Levitus, S., and J. Antonov, 1995: Observational evidence of interannual to decadal scale variability of the temperature-salinity structure of the world ocean. Climatic Change: Special Issue on Long-term Climate Monitoring, 31, 495-514.

Zhang, R-H. and S. Levitus, 1996: Structure and evolution of interannual variability of the tropical Pacific upper ocean temperature. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 101, 20501-20524.

Greatbatch, R., A.F. Fanning, A.D. Goulding, A. da Silva, and S. Levitus, 1994: Model-Calculated Seasonal Transport Variations through the Florida Straits: A Comparison Using Different Wind Stress Climatologies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 30-45.

Levitus, S., J. Antonov, and T. Boyer, 1994: Interannual variability of temperature at a depth of 125 m in the North Atlantic Ocean. Science, 266, 96-99. Online reprint pdf

Reverdin, G., D. Cayan, H.D. Dooley, D.J. Ellett, S. Levitus, Y. DuPenhoat, and A. Dessier, 1994: Surface salinity of the North Atlantic: Can we reconstruct its fluctuations over the last one hundred years. Prog. Oceanogr. ,33,303-346.

Stathoplos, L. and Tuross, N., 1994: Proteins and DNA from modern planktonic foraminifera. J. Foraminiferal Res., 24, 49-59.

Antonov, J.I., 1993: Linear Trends of Temperature at Intermediate and Deep Layers of the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean: 1957-1981. J. Climate, 6, 1928-1942.

Levitus, S., M. Conkright, J.L. Reid, R. Najjar, and A. Mantyla,1993: Global Distributions of Silicate, Nitrate, and Phosphate in the World Ocean. Prog. Oceanogr., 31, 3, 245-273.

Stathoplos, L. and Hare, P. E. 1993: Bleaching removes amino acids from deep sea planktonic foraminiferal shells. J. Foraminiferal Res., 23(2), >102-107.

Tuross, N. and Stathoplos, L., 1993: Ancient Proteins in Fossil Bones. Methods in Enzymology, 224, 121-129

Conkright, M.E. and W.M. Sackett, 1992: Stable carbon isotope changes during the maturation of organic matter. In: Productivity, Accumulation and Preservation of Organic Matter in Recent and Ancient Sediments, J. Whelan and J. Farrington, eds., Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 403-414.

Levitus, S., and G. Isayev, 1992: A Polynomial Approximation to the International Equation of State for Seawater. J. Ocean Atmosph. Tech., 9, 705-707.

Greatbatch, R., A.F. Fanning, A.D. Goulding, and S. Levitus, 1991: A Diagnosis of Interpentadal Circulation Changes in the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 96, 22009-22024.

Trenberth, K. , J. Angell, R. Barry, R. Bradley, H. Diaz, W. Elliott, R. Etkins, C. Folland, R. Jenne, P. Jones, T. Karl, S. Levitus, A. Oort, D. Parker, C. Ropelewski, K. Vinnikov, and T. Wigley, 1991: Working Group I: Observations, in Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, Elseveir, New York, pp. 571-582.

Levitus, S., 1990: Interpentadal variability of steric sea Level and geopotential thickness of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1970-74 versus 1955-59. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 95, 5233-5238.

Levitus, S., 1989: Interpentadal variability of temperature and salinity at intermediate depths of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1970-74 versus 1955-59. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 94, 6091-6131.

Levitus, S., 1989: Interpentadal variability of salinity in the upper 150 m of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1970-74 versus 1955-59. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 94, 9679-9685.

Levitus, S., 1989: Interpentadal variability of temperature and salinity in the deep North Atlantic, 1970-74 versus 1955-59. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 94, 16125-16131.

Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean, NOAA Professional Paper 13, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Rockville, M.D., 190 pp. Online reprint pdf