April 2024 Selected Climate Anomalies and Events Map

Temperature

In January 2024, the NOAA Global Surface Temperature (NOAAGlobalTemp) dataset version 6.0.0 replaced version 5.1.0. This new version incorporates an artificial neural network (ANN) method to improve the spatial interpolation of monthly land surface air temperatures. The period of record (1850-present) and complete global coverage remain the same as in the previous version of NOAAGlobalTemp. While anomalies and ranks might differ slightly from what was reported previously, the main conclusions regarding global climate change are very similar to the previous version. Please see our Commonly Asked Questions Document and web story for additional information.

NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information calculates the global temperature anomaly every month based on preliminary data generated from authoritative datasets of temperature observations from around the globe. The major dataset, NOAAGlobalTemp version 6.0.0, updated in 2024, uses comprehensive data collections of increased global area coverage over both land and ocean surfaces. NOAAGlobalTempv6.0.0 is a reconstructed dataset, meaning that the entire period of record is recalculated each month with new data. Based on those new calculations, the new historical data can bring about updates to previously reported values. These factors, together, mean that calculations from the past may be superseded by the most recent data and can affect the numbers reported in the monthly climate reports. The most current reconstruction analysis is always considered the most representative and precise of the climate system, and it is publicly available through Climate at a Glance.


April 2024

April 2024 was the warmest April on record for the globe in NOAA's 175-year record. The April global surface temperature was 1.32°C (2.38°F) above the 20th-century average of 13.7°C (56.7°F). This is 0.18°C (0.32°F) warmer than the previous April record set most recently in 2020, and the eleventh consecutive month of record-high global temperatures. April 2024 marked the 48th consecutive April with global temperatures, at least nominally, above the 20th-century average.

Global land-only April temperature was warmest on record at 1.97°C (3.55°F) above average. The ocean-only temperature also ranked warmest on record for April at 1.03°C (1.85°F) above average, 0.17°C (0.31°F) warmer than the second warmest April of 2023, and the 13th-consecutive monthly ocean record high. These temperatures occurred as the current El Niño episode nears its end. El Niño conditions that emerged in June 2023 weakened further in April, and according to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, a transition from El Niño to ENSO–neutral is likely in the next month, with odds of La Niña developing by June–August (49% chance) or July–September 2024 (69% chance).

Temperatures were much-above average to record warm throughout much of South America, Africa, central and southern Europe, southwestern Russia and Turkey, as well as much of Asia's Far East. Temperatures were also much warmer-than-average across large parts of the northeast U.S. and much of northern Canada. The largest temperature anomalies (greater than 3°C or 5.4°F above average) occurred in northern Canada, western and northern Greenland, eastern Europe, central Asia, southeast Asia, eastern China and parts of eastern Russia.

Record warm April temperatures in Southeast Asia were due in part to a heatwave in late April with daily high temperatures exceeding 38-43°C (100-110°F) in an area stretching from India to southeastern China and the Philippines. Examples of station's highest maximum temperatures to occur during the last half of April in this region from NCEI's Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily dataset include more than 75 stations with highest temperatures exceeding 40.5°C (105°F). Extremely warm overnight temperatures, exceeding 26.5°C (80°F) were also widespread.

As was the case in recent months, sea surface temperatures were above average across much of the northern, western, and equatorial Pacific Ocean, although the positive anomalies in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific were smaller than recent months as El Niño weakened. As they did in March, record-warm temperatures covered much of the tropical Atlantic Ocean as well as parts of the southern Atlantic and northwestern and southern Indian Ocean. Record warm temperatures covered 14.7% of the world's surface this month. This is more than twice the second-highest April value of 7.1% set in 2016 and the second highest record warm coverage for any month since records began in 1951, slightly below the 15.0% coverage in September 2023.

April temperatures were cooler than the 1991–2020 average in areas that included much of mainland Australia, southern parts of South America, much of Iceland, Scandinavia and northwest Russia, eastern Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, as well as parts of East Africa including Sudan and South Sudan. Much of east Antarctica was cooler than the 1991-2020 average with anomalies lower than -2°C (-3.6°F) widespread. Sea surface temperatures were below average in parts of the southeastern Pacific and Southern Ocean. Record cold temperatures covered 0.1% of the world's surface in April.

In the Northern Hemisphere, April 2024 ranked warmest on record at 1.75°C (3.15°F) above average, 0.28°C (0.50°F) warmer than the previous April record of 2016. The Northern Hemisphere land temperature and ocean temperature each ranked warmest on record for the month. The Southern Hemisphere experienced its second warmest April on record at 0.88°C (1.58°F) above average, 0.05°C (0.09°F) cooler than 2023. The Southern Hemisphere land temperature for April tied 2010 as 20th warmest while April's ocean temperature was warmest on record.

A smoothed map of blended land and sea surface temperature anomalies is also available.

South America had its warmest April while Europe had its second-warmest and Africa its fourth-warmest April on record.

  • In Germany April 2024 was the 14th-warmest April since records began in 1881, 1.1°C warmer than the 1991–2020 average, 2.7°C warmer than the 1961–1990 average.
  • April 2024 was the ninth-warmest April in Italy, based on preliminary data, 1.22°C warmer than the 1991–2020 average in a record that started in 1800. Northern Italy had its 18th-warmest April, central Italy its fourth-warmest, and southern Italy its fifth warmest.
  • In Austria the first half of April was exceptionally warm, with 100 of 280 weather stations reaching new heat records for April. The highest April temperature since records began in the late 1800's occurred at the Innsbruck University station and Graz University station. Cold air intrusions during the latter half of the month were more typical of April and for the month as a whole the mean temperature for the lowlands of Austria was 1.2°C above then 1991–2020 average and 1.8°C above average in the mountains. These were, respectively, the 13th warmest in the 258-year lowlands record and 10th warmest in the 174-year mountain record.
  • In the United Kingdom the first half of April was generally warmer than average and the second half of the month cooler than average. For April, the average mean temperature for the UK was 0.4°C above the 1991–2020 average, its 22nd-warmest April in a series that began in 1884, based on provisional data.
  • In Iceland, April 2024 temperatures were cooler than average across the country. Anomalies as low as -1.8°C below the 1991–2020 average occurred in Akureyri and Egilsstadir, with even colder negative anomalies in many locations when compared to temperatures of the past ten years.
  • In Argentina temperatures for April were generally below average in the southern half of the country and warmer than average in northern areas. Monthly anomalies exceeding +2°C above the 1991–2020 average were largely confined to parts of the northern provinces of Formosa, Chaco, and Misiones. Temperatures more than -1°C cooler than average occurred in the southern provinces of Chubut, Santa Cruz, and Río Negro.

Asia had its third-warmest April and Oceania its 54th warmest April on record.

  • The April 2024 national mean monthly temperature for Pakistan was 0.87°C below the country average of 24.54°C. The hottest day of the month in Pakistan occurred at Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh province), when the high temperature reached 43.5°C (110.3°F) on April 8.
  • According to the Hong Kong Observatory, under the influence of warmer than normal sea surface temperatures and stronger than usual southerly flow over the northern part of the South China Sea, the mean temperature in April 2024 for Hong Kong was the warmest on record at 3.4°C above the 1991–2020 average. The mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures also were warmest on record for April.
  • In Australia the national area-average mean temperature for April was 0.51°C below the 1961-1990 average, the lowest since 2015, and the mean minimum temperature in South Australia was 10th coolest on record. Temperatures were below-average across most of mainland Australia
  • The national average April temperature for New Zealand was 0.4°C above the 1991-2020 average.

North America had its second warmest April at 2.45°C (4.41°F) above average.

  • The average temperature of the contiguous U.S. in April 2024 was 53.8°F, which is 2.7°F above the 1901-2000 average, the warmest April since 2017 and the 12th warmest such month on record.
  • The Caribbean region had its warmest April on record, 1.40°C (2.52°F) above the 1910-2000 average. This is 0.22°C (0.40°F) above the second warmest April of 2020.
April Ranks and Records
AprilAnomalyRank
(out of 175 years)
Records
°C°FYear(s)°C°F
Global
Land+1.97+3.55Warmest1st2024+1.97+3.55
Coolest175th1867-1.20-2.16
Ocean+1.03+1.85Warmest1st2024+1.03+1.85
Coolest175th1911-0.49-0.88
Land and Ocean+1.32+2.38Warmest1st2024+1.32+2.38
Coolest175th1909-0.53-0.95
Northern Hemisphere
Land+2.53+4.55Warmest1st2024+2.53+4.55
Coolest175th1896-1.42-2.56
Ocean+1.16+2.09Warmest1st2024+1.16+2.09
Coolest175th1917-0.54-0.97
Land and Ocean+1.75+3.15Warmest1st2024+1.75+3.15
Coolest175th1862-0.73-1.31
Southern Hemisphere
Land+0.69+1.24Warmest20th2018+1.62+2.92
Coolest156th1861-0.85-1.53
Ties: 2010
Ocean+0.93+1.67Warmest1st2024+0.93+1.67
Coolest175th1911-0.51-0.92
Land and Ocean+0.88+1.58Warmest2nd2023+0.93+1.67
Coolest174th1911-0.51-0.92
Antarctic
Land and Ocean-0.21-0.38Warmest126th2023+1.12+2.02
Coolest50th1954-1.11-2.00
Ties: 1886, 1931
Arctic
Land and Ocean+2.69+4.84Warmest7th2007, 2020+3.48+6.26
Coolest169th1896-2.89-5.20

500 mb maps

In the atmosphere, 500-millibar height pressure anomalies correlate well with temperatures at the Earth's surface. The average position of the upper-level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure—depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the map—is generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively.

hgtanomaly-global-202404.png

Year-to-date Temperature: January–April 2024

The January–April global surface temperature ranked warmest in the 175-year record at 1.34°C (2.41°F) above the 1901-2000 average of 12.6°C (54.7°F). According to NCEI's statistical analysis, there is a 61% chance that 2024 will rank as the warmest year on record and a 100% chance that it will rank in the top five.

For the January–April year-to-date period, South America and western and southern Europe are notable for the great expanse of record-warm temperatures. Much-warmer-than-average and record warm conditions also covered much of Africa, southern Asia, and a large part of eastern North America. Temperatures for the four-month year-to-date period also were warmer-than-average across central and northern Asia, much of southern and eastern Australia, and the western half of North America. Cooler-than-average temperatures were widespread in Antarctica. Temperatures below the 1991—2020 average also were notable in areas of eastern Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, much of northern India and northern Pakistan, northern Australia, and small parts of eastern Russia.

Sea surface temperatures were much warmer-than-average across much of the northern and equatorial Pacific as well as the southwest Pacific. Record-warm January–April sea surface temperatures stretched from the Caribbean Sea across the tropical Atlantic and to the northeastern Atlantic. Record warm temperatures also affected large parts of the Indian Ocean, the southern Atlantic and parts of the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The most widespread areas of sea surface temperatures below the 1991—2020 average occurred in the southeastern Pacific, southwestern Indian Ocean and parts of the Southern Ocean.

A smoothed map of blended land and sea surface temperature anomalies is also available.

South America and Europe had their warmest January–April year-to-date period, and Africa and North America their second-warmest such period on record. Oceania had its ninth-warmest January–April period and Asia its 10th warmest. Overall, the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere each had their warmest January–April on record.

  • The average temperature of the contiguous U.S. for the January-April 2024 period was 43.0°F, which is 3.8°F above the 1901-2000 average, ranking as the fifth warmest on record.
  • The Caribbean region had its warmest January-April on record, 1.28°C (2.30°F) above the 1910-2000 average.
January–April Ranks and Records
January–AprilAnomalyRank
(out of 175 years)
Records
°C°FYear(s)°C°F
Global
Land+2.05+3.69Warmest2nd2016+2.23+4.01
Coolest174th1862-0.95-1.71
Ocean+1.03+1.85Warmest1st2024+1.03+1.85
Coolest175th1917-0.48-0.86
Land and Ocean+1.34+2.41Warmest1st2024+1.34+2.41
Coolest175th1917-0.58-1.04
Northern Hemisphere
Land+2.50+4.50Warmest2nd2016+2.78+5.00
Coolest174th1893-1.14-2.05
Ocean+1.18+2.12Warmest1st2024+1.18+2.12
Coolest175th1917-0.53-0.95
Land and Ocean+1.75+3.15Warmest1st2024+1.75+3.15
Coolest175th1862, 1917-0.69-1.24
Southern Hemisphere
Land+1.02+1.84Warmest2nd2019+1.07+1.93
Coolest174th1918-0.81-1.46
Ocean+0.92+1.66Warmest1st2024+0.92+1.66
Coolest175th1911-0.49-0.88
Land and Ocean+0.94+1.69Warmest1st2024+0.94+1.69
Coolest175th1904-0.50-0.90
Antarctic
Land and Ocean-0.13-0.23Warmest110th1980+0.79+1.42
Coolest66th1960-0.64-1.15
Ties: 1862, 1868, 1892, 1906
Arctic
Land and Ocean+2.88+5.18Warmest6th2016+4.11+7.40
Coolest170th1966-2.48-4.46

Precipitation

The maps shown below represent precipitation percent of normal (left, using a base period of 1961–1990) and precipitation percentiles (right, using the period of record) based on the GHCN dataset of land surface stations.

April 2024

Below-average April precipitation occurred in areas that included a large region stretching across southern and central Europe from Portugal and Spain to Turkey and Ukraine. Drier-than-average conditions also occurred in much of western Iran, Nepal, Southeast Asia, and much of mainland Australia. Large parts of Mexico and the western United States and eastern Alaska were drier-than-average in April. Conversely, April was wetter than average in areas that included much of Argentina, southern and eastern Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay, much of the central and northeast United States as well as western Alaska, northern Europe, much of Pakistan, parts of central and eastern China, and much of Russia.

  • In the UAE and Oman exceptionally heavy rainfall, as much as one to two-years of rain in 24 hours, caused massive disruption in infrastructure and public life. Observations provided every six hours at Dubai International airport showed a combined total of 159 mm (6.26 in) in the 24-hour period ending at 10pm local on April 16. This was twice the normal amount of rain received in a year; 79.2 mm (3.12 in). A group of international researchers determined contributing factors to this extreme event to be the influence of El Niño and an increase in heavy rainfall that has occurred as the global climate has warmed.

  • In southern Russia and northern Kazahkstan heavy rains and rapid snowmelt under much-warmer-than-average conditions led to devastating floods as rivers rose and overflowed their banks, some to record levels. Widespread damage to infrastructure and displacement of thousands were reported.

  • Devastating flooding also occurred in East Africa as unusually heavy rains caused rivers to overflow their banks with reports of hundreds of thousands displaced and hundreds of deaths. Countries most severely affected include Kenya, Tanzania, and Burundi.

  • In Brazil torrential rains in the last days of April and early May led to catastrophic flooding in Rio Grande do Sul, reportedly displacing thousands and with dozens of deaths and many more missing. The flooding is reported to be the worst in 80 years.

  • According to the Pakistan Meteorological Department Pakistan's nationally averaged rainfall for April 2024 was 164% above average, the record wettest April since 1961 (breaking the previous record set in 1983). Flash floods occurred in Balochistan and upper Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province associated with riverine flooding of the Kabul River.

  • According to the Met Office, April precipitation for the UK as a whole was 155% of the 1991-2020 average based on provisional data, its sixth-wettest April in the 189-year record. All countries in the UK provisionally recorded over 100% of their average April rainfall. Scotland (160%) and northern England (176%) were particularly wet, and Edinburgh provisionally had its second wettest April on record dating back to 1836 (more than 200% of average).

  • In Argentina, precipitation in April was most notably above average in northern provinces. Monthly totals exceeding 100 mm were widespread in the northern provinces of Salta, Formosa, Chaco, and Corrientes and anomalies were greater than 50 mm above average in many areas.

  • According to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology the national area-averaged April rainfall total was 26.0% below the 1961-1990 average. It was the eighth-driest April on record for South Australia and rainfall in April was below average for western, southern and central parts of the country. Rainfall was generally above average in Australia's east and north.


  • References

    • Adler, R., G. Gu, M. Sapiano, J. Wang, G. Huffman 2017. Global Precipitation: Means, Variations and Trends During the Satellite Era (1979-2014). Surveys in Geophysics 38: 679-699, doi:10.1007/s10712-017-9416-4
    • Adler, R., M. Sapiano, G. Huffman, J. Wang, G. Gu, D. Bolvin, L. Chiu, U. Schneider, A. Becker, E. Nelkin, P. Xie, R. Ferraro, D. Shin, 2018. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Analysis (New Version 2.3) and a Review of 2017 Global Precipitation. Atmosphere. 9(4), 138; doi:10.3390/atmos9040138
    • Gu, G., and R. Adler, 2022. Observed Variability and Trends in Global Precipitation During 1979-2020. Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-022-06567-9
    • Huang, B., Peter W. Thorne, et. al, 2017: Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 5 (ERSSTv5), Upgrades, validations, and intercomparisons. J. Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0836.1
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    • Menne, M. J., C. N. Williams, B.E. Gleason, J. J Rennie, and J. H. Lawrimore, 2018: The Global Historical Climatology Network Monthly Temperature Dataset, Version 4. J. Climate, in press. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0094.1.
    • Peterson, T.C. and R.S. Vose, 1997: An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network Database. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 2837-2849.
    • Vose, R., B. Huang, X. Yin, D. Arndt, D. R. Easterling, J. H. Lawrimore, M. J. Menne, A. Sanchez-Lugo, and H. M. Zhang, 2021. Implementing Full Spatial Coverage in NOAA's Global Temperature Analysis. Geophysical Research Letters 48(10), e2020GL090873; doi:10.1029/2020gl090873.

    Citing This Report

    NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Monthly Global Climate Report for April 2024, published online May 2024, retrieved on May 28, 2024 from https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/monitoring/monthly-report/global/202404.